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Did you see the electrical wires at home, shops, or offices? You must have a vital question, i,e Why do metals conduct electricity?

Do you know the metal name used inside the plastic coating wires? Most of them have their main ingredient as copper metals. Copper is an excellent conductor of electricity. The metal also consists of free electrons ( movable electrical charged particles). Metals conduct electricity. As soon as you apply an electric charge to the metal, the free electrons start moving. As a result, it allows the electricity to pass. 

An Overview of metal and electricity

An Overview of metal and electricity

Students often ask, ‘ Is there a relationship between metal and electricity?’. Learners with pure science in college often have this query. The free electrons present in the metal allow electricity to pass between the atoms. The electrical conductivity of alloys is poor as it includes impurities. 

Only pure metals have the best conductivity. If you consider the material used in modern cookware, copper metals have the maximum price. Do you know why? The electrons flow in copper metal faster than aluminum. As a result, it catches heat more quickly and cooks with speed. As a result, the price of copper metal is high. You must keep the facts in mind while you write assignments on the same subject.

Why do metals conduct electricity?

The movement of electrons is the reason behind metals getting conducted to electricity. The atoms include the valence electrons present in their outer shell. These free-moving valence electrons bring heat and electricity. 

As soon as the metal gets charged with electricity, the valence electron achieves the threshold energy. Now, this energy is the power electrons. Thus, it requires them to proceed from their regular orbit. Moreover, the electrons move through the lattice, which creates the metal’s physical structure. Along with the knowledge on metal’s physical structure you also need to deal with nodal analysis in your science career. Get full details here.

Do you know when the metals gain the capacity to bring out the maximum level of electricity? It is where you find no resistance at all. Thus, it is better to get pure metals like gold, silver, and copper. Since gold and silver are too expensive, the manufacturers choose copper metals for electricity.

How do metals conduct electricity?

Once you have known the reason behind the conduction of electricity, the following important fact is ‘ How.’  Also, you may get the same question in your Electronics Assignment. Following points and explanations will be helpful.

Chemical bonding

To form their outermost shells, the atoms of such elements formed bonds. Those are ionic, chemical, and coordinated (dative) covalent bonds.

Facts on Metal bonds

Metallic bonds are the electrostatic attraction between positive charge atoms and a sea of electrons. The more electrons in the water, the more conductivity metals have.

Metals are compact substances that demonstrate the strength underlying metallic connections. The organized Layers of atoms are present due to their metallic lattices. Also, transition metals exhibit extremely high tensile strain. Metals are ductile and malleable.

Free electrons

Free electrons

The electrons that exist within the lattices in materials are called free electrons. The term ‘free’ refers to the state of being ‘unbound .’The electrons are free of atomic boundaries. But, they are held together by attraction forces called metallic bonds. Each one has the surrounding atoms.

They have the ability of free electrons to flow in row configurations. As long as they get a replacement, ‘not withdrawn,’ accounts for electrical conductivity between metals.

Metals’ Structure

The formations of pure metals are straightforward. The atoms that form these metals are equal flawless spheres. More precisely, the metallic structure is composed of ‘aligned positive ions’; 

Metals have suspension in a “sea” of delocalized electrons. As a result, it allows electrons to travel freely within the structure. It results in qualities such as conductivity.

What are the types of bonds?

Covalent bonds

A covalent bond exists when two or more atoms share their electrons. Water, sugar, and carbon dioxide are all examples of substances containing covalent bonding.

Ionic bonds

The entire transfer of valence electrons between a metal and a nonmetal is ionic bonding. It leads to the formation of two charged ions attracted to one another. In ionic bonding, the metal sheds electrons to form an ionized cation, while the nonmetal receives them to create a negative charge anion. Salt is one of the patent examples of an ionic bond (NaCl).

Metal-based bonds

Metallic bonding occurs as a result of the electrostatic attraction between conduction electrons. They come in the form of a cloud of electrons. 

Metallic bonding determines numerous physical properties. It includes strength, flexibility, electrical and thermal resistivity, conduction, opacity, and brilliance. If you are a student of electrical engineering.

Do all metals conduct electricity?

By now, it is clear that metals conduct electricity. But, most of you must be wondering whether all the metals are present in this list. The answer is yes. All metals do conduct electricity. But, the intensity transmission rate varies in each metal. The crystal structure of the metal rules the electrical conductivity level. The metals that have better fluidity have high electrical conductivity. Following are the metals with some details:

  • Silver- Due to its improved crystal structure, pure silver is high in conductivity. But, the down part is its expensive nature. Also, it has less resistance to heat. 
  • Copper- Being a metal with high electrical conductivity; copper also includes delocalized electrons. Unlike silver, it is ductile and malleable. 
  • Gold – The metal is known as a great conductor of electricity. However, gold is one of the pure elements that are high in cost. Thus, very few wire manufacturer companies use this metal. 
  • Aluminum. It is a non-magnetic, electrical conductor with a soft atomic structure. People use aluminum in day-to-day life. It can pass electric current but sometimes leads to overheating. 



Students with a project on fixing the cables, connectors, and adaptors must know about conductivity.In addition, the electric current which flows through the wire is just the movement of electrons. We use electricity in almost all spheres of life in our day-to-day life. The adaptor that charges our laptop, mobile charger, etc runs on electricity. According to one of the theories in physics, the applied current is proportional to the direct voltage. More specifically, Ohm’s law states this. 

V ∝ I

V = I.R

In the above equation, R denotes resistance, which is proportionately constant. It signifies the ability of the substance to resist the electricity flow. Some electrons enter and then leave from the other side of the metal from one side. 

However, most metals conduct electricity. The inclusions are zinc, nickel, brass, iron, lead, stainless steel. The change in electrical conductivity level may occur due to several factors. Those are:

  • level of impurities in the metal
  • temperature ( increase in temperature brings thermal excitation)
  • electromagnetic fields
  • crystal structure
  • frequency

Valence and conduction bands

In physics, students come across several types of energy bands. Let us discuss two trendy bars that can help you get a more transparent view of the bandgap. 

  • Valence band-The electrons displayed in outer shells are Valence electrons. The energy level of the energy band differs, which forms the Valence band.
  • Conduction band– The outermost electrons are loosely coupled to the nucleus. As a result, such delocalized electrons escape from the outer orbits at room temperature. After that, they become free electrons. Moreover, these free particles charge the current in several conductors. Such a characteristic feature of the band makes it conduct electrons.

What is metallic bonding?

What is metallic bonding?

Most grad students discovered that ‘ metallic bonding has a sea of electrons.’ But, most of them have no proper understanding of – ‘ what is metallic bonding?’. Let’s make it clear right here. 

Metallic bonding came from the electrostatic force between two elements. Those are the delocalized electron (electron cloud) bond and conduction electrons. In simple words, metallic bonding shares free electrons in positively charged ions. 

Also, the number of electrons passing through the cross-section has no net charge flow. As a result, the current is zero. If you are studying Materials Science, you must understand the properties of matters. Also, its application is vital.

Metal ions and metallic bonding

In ionic bonding, metals ions release electrons to different atoms. Likewise, the same metal ions give up similar electrons in the electron sea. For example, one sodium will include a single electron in every one atom. Also, it implies aluminum metal will consist of three free electrons in metal atoms of the same metal. 

The electrostatic force helps the metals to bind together. Each atom is positively charged and includes a negatively charged sea. This sea of electrons acts like glue and keeps the atoms together. The positive effect of metallic bonding has the following properties:

  • Ductility
  • Malleability
  • Strength
  • Shine in metal
  • High melting point
  • Thermal conductivity

Delocalized moving electrons

The free movement of electrons with conductivity is none other than delocalized electrons in moving form. Let us find out some vital variations of conductivities:

Electrical conductivity

Every metal consists of delocalized electrons in free-moving form. As you apply electric voltage in a particular electric field, it triggers the movement of electrons. As a result, they shift from one pole to another pole of the conductor. In this case, the electron moves to the positive side.

Heat conduction

One of the characteristic features of metal is being a good heat conductor. It starts vibrating more vigorously as you heat the metal with a source. One can observe the pump of these molecules to the particles nearby. As a result, a transfer of energy comes at much more speed. Likewise, it is quite important to know ;Why Physics is a Benevolent subject? Our daily lives have the Answer!. You can get all the details and features in this blog. Read it today to relate it in our daily life


By now, you must have a clear conception of why and how metals conduct electricity. Each metal’s features and utility also contribute generously to enhancing your knowledge. Do you study electrical engineering? Do you have an electrical project? The theories on electromagnetic fields are equally important. Also, the flow of electrons is quite helpful. Choosing a suitable metal for electrical conductivity is vital for your study. You can get the details of it in this blog. You can now read the quality blogs in A4U to get more details on several other subjects. Our professional writers have all expertise to write informative and flawless content for your benefit.

Frequently Asked Questions



Which metal is a good conductor of electricity?

One of the most commonly used metals to conduct electricity is copper. As a metal, copper is pliable and easy to wrap or solder. That’s why it’s the best choice when large amounts of wiring are needed. Copper’s core electrical function is related to electricity transmission and power generation.

What is the highest conductor of electricity?

Silver has the highest conductivity for electricity of all metals. In fact, silver defines conductivity – all other metals are compared against it. On a scale of 0 to 100. Silver is ranked 100, with copper at 97 and gold at 76. However, silver is more costly than copper. That’s why all the home wirings are done using copper.

What makes metals good conductors of electricity?

Metals are good conductors of both heat and electricity. The reason is at least one electron per atom is free. That means it is not tied to any particular atom but is, instead, able to move freely throughout the metal. That makes metals good conductors and used in various electronic and electrical devices.

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