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Total Quality Management(TQM) consists of organization-wide efforts to make permanent a climate and install in which an organization continuously improves its ability for delivering high-quality services and products to customers. TQM efforts draw heavily on the previously developed techniques and tools of quality control. During the late 1980s and early 1990s, TQM enjoyed the widespread attention. The developed countries of Western Europe and North America suffered during the late 1970s and early 1980s, in the face of stiff competition from Japan’s ability to produce high-quality goods at competitive cost. Since the start of the Industrial Revolution, The United Kingdom became a net importer of finished goods. The exact origin of the term total quality management (TQM) is uncertain. In the United States Navy in the spring of 1984, an armed asked some of its civilian researchers to assess the work of several prominent quality consultants and the statistical process control, for making a recommendation, as to how to apply their approaches to improving the Navy’s operational effectiveness. The commendations were to adopt the teachings of W. Edwards Deming. In 1985, The Navy branded the effort “Total Quality Management”. TQM, from the Navy, spread throughout the US Federal Government, resulting in the following:
- In August 1987, the creation of the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award.
- In June 1988, the creation of the Federal Quality Institute
- The adoption of TQM by many elements of the armed forces and the government, including the United States Army, United States Department of Defense and United States Coast Guard.
Since “total quality” requires not just employees, involving suppliers, in process improvement efforts, the private sector followed suit. There is no widespread agreement as to what Total Quality Management is and what actions it requires of organizations. However, the original United States Navy review gives a rough understanding of what is involved in TQM effort. In the 1980s, the key concepts in the TQM effort undertaken by the Navy include:
- The Top management has a direct responsibility for quality improvement
- Quality is defined by customers’ requirements.
- Increased quality comes from the improvement of work processes and systematic analysis.
- Quality improvement is conducted throughout the organization and is a continuous effort.
The Navy used the following techniques and tools:
- The PDCA cycle to drive issues to resolution
- The Ad hoc cross-functional team responsible for addressing immediate process issues
- Through steering committees, active management participation.
- Standing cross-functional teams that are responsible for the improvement of processes over the long term.
- To analyze quality-related issues, use of the seven basic tools of quality.
There is no accepted definition of TQM, but several notable organizations have attempted to define it which include; In the department of defense of United States (1988), Total Quality Management is a strategy for continually improving performance at every level, and in all areas of responsibility. It combines existing improvement efforts, fundamental management techniques, and specialized technical tools. Improved performance is directed at satisfying broad goals as schedule, quality, cost, mission need, and suitability. Override objective is the increasing user satisfaction. The Total Quality Management efforts build on the pioneering works of Dr. J.M.Juran, Dr. W.E. Deming, and others and from both public and private sector experience with continuous process improvement. The Baldrige Award, which is created by Public Law 100-107, in the United States, annually recognizes, education institutions, American businesses, non-profit organizations, healthcare organizations, and government or role models for organizational performance excellence. From seven categories, organizations are judged on criteria:
- Knowledge management, measurement, and analysis
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