Identify the independent and dependent variable(s) in each of the abstracts.
Your identification of the IV(s) and DV(s) in each abstract will be completed through short answer response. Simply list the IV(s) and the DV(s).
Fritz, J. N., Iwata, B. A., Rolider, N. U., Camp, E. M., & Neidert, P. L. (2012). Analysis of self-recording in self-management interventions for stereotypy. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 45, 55-68.
Most treatments for stereotypy involve arrangements of antecedent or consequent events that are imposed entirely by a therapist. By contrast, results of some studies suggest that self-recording, a common component of self-management interventions, might be an effective and efficient way to reduce stereotype. Because the procedure typically has included instructions to refrain from stereotypy, self-recording of the absence of stereotypy, and differential reinforcement of accurate recording, it is unclear which element or combination of elements produces reductions in stereotypy. We conducted a component analysis of a self-management intervention and observed that decreases in stereotype might be attributable to instructional control or to differential reinforcement, but that self-recording per se had little effect on stereotypy
Austin, J. L. & Bevan, D. (2011). Using differential reinforcement of lower rates to reduce children’s requests for teacher attention. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 44, 451 – 461.
We evaluated the effectiveness of full-session differential reinforcement of low rates of behavior (DRL) on 3 primary school children’s rates of requesting attention from their teacher. Using baseline rates of responding and teacher recommendations, we set a DRL schedule that was substantially lower than baseline yet still allowed the children access to teacher assistance. The DRL schedule was effective in reducing children’s requests for assistance and approval, and the teacher found the intervention highly useful and acceptable. The possible mechanisms that account for behavior change using full-session DRL schedules are discussed.
Vaz, P. C., Piazza, C. C., Stewart, V., Volkert, V. M., Groff, R. A., & Patel, M. R. (2012). Using a chaser to decrease packing in children with feeding disorders. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 45, 97-105.
Packing is a problematic mealtime behavior that is characterized by pocketing or holding solids or liquids in the mouth without swallowing. In the current study, we examined the effects of a chaser, a liquid or solid consistently accepted and swallowed by the child, to decrease packing of solid foods in 3 children with feeding disorders. During the chase procedure, the therapist presented the chaser immediately for 2 children or 15 s after each bite presentation for 1 child. The chaser was effective in decreasing packing for all 3 children. The results are discussed in terms of the clinical importance of the findings and directions for future research.
Grow, L. L., Carr, J. E., Kodak, T. M., Jostad, C. M., & Kisamore, A. N. (2011). A comparison of methods for teaching receptive labeling to children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 44, 475-498.
Many early intervention curricular manuals recommend teaching auditory-visual conditional discriminations (i.e., receptive labeling) using the simple conditional method in which component simple discriminations are taught in isolation and in the presence of a distracter stimulus before the learner is required to respond conditionally. Some have argued that this procedure might be susceptible to faulty stimulus control such as stimulus over-selectivity (Green, 2001). Consequently, there has been a call for the use of alternative teaching procedures such as the conditional only method, which involves conditional discrimination training from the onset of intervention. The purpose of the present study was to compare the simple conditional and conditional only methods for teaching receptive labeling to 3 young children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. The data indicated that the conditional only method was a more reliable and efficient teaching procedure. In addition, several error patterns emerged during training using the simple conditional method. The implications of the results with respect to current teaching practices in early intervention programs are discussed.
Himle, M. B., Miltenberger, R. G., Flessner, C., & Gatheridge, B. (2004). Teaching safety skills to children to prevent gun play. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37, 1-9.
Research has shown that children often engage in gun play when they find a firearm and that this behavior is often involved in unintentional firearm injuries. Previous research has shown existing programs to be ineffective for teaching children safety skills to reduce gun play. This study examined the effectiveness of a behavioral skills training (BST) program supplemented with in situ training for teaching children safety skills to use when they find a gun (i.e., don’t touch, leave the area, tell an adult). Eight 4- to 5-year-old children were trained and assessed in a naturalistic setting and in a generalized setting in a multiple baseline across subjects design. Results showed that 3 of the children performed the skills after receiving BST, whereas 5 of the children required supplemental in situ training. All children in the study learned to perform the skills when assessed in a naturalistic setting and when assessed in a generalization setting. Performance was maintained at 2- to 8-week follow-up assessments.