Exercise 3 , Discuss whether divine command theory is compatible with democracy and the rule of the people, or if theocracy (a form of government in which God is recognised as the supreme rule) is a more appropriate form of government. Support your answer.
I do think that the divine command theory is compatible with democracy and the rule of people because Democracy
Explain what civil religion is. What is positive about it and what are its drawbacks?
Civil religion is a set of institutional beliefs, symbols, and rituals that provide a religious dimension to a nation’s collective life.
Exercise 4 , Although there have been presidents such as Lincoln who never belonged to a church, there has never been a president who was not a believer in God. To what extent did the religious beliefs of the candidates in the 2012 presidential election influence your view of their moral integrity? Would it be possible for an atheist or an agnostic to be elected president of the United States? Support your answer.
Exercise 1 , Can science and our everyday existence give our life meaning? Or do you agree that without God there is no purpose or meaning in life and, consequently, no reason we should be moral? Support your answer.
Exercise 5, Address same-sex marriage specifically. Can the debate over the morality of the issue be carried on without using religious doctrine? If not, what happens when a religious principle seems to conflict with a moral principle? Or is such a conflict even possible?
Explain how natural laws might exist as part of the natural order, apart from any divine presence. Then, explain what a difference adding a God (or gods) to natural law theory makes.
Exercise 3 , Discuss how a cultural relativist would respond to the civil disobedience of people such as Martin Luther King Jr., Susan B. Anthony, and Gandhi.
Exercise 2, Some people claim that we should keep our religious morality and public morality separate. For example, a Catholic politician may believe that abortion or active euthanasia is immoral, but this does not necessarily mean, that argument goes, that these practices should be illegal or are wrong for non-Catholics. Does this argument make sense if natural or moral law is universally binding upon everyone? If one’s religious morality does not apply in public life, then is it really morality at all? Discuss.
Compare and contrast Rand’s list of the four “rational virtues” with the version of egoism presented by Gyges. Discuss how each of them would answer the questions: Why should we be independent and honest if we could advance our self-interest by stealing someone else’s’ ideas or property? Why should we be just if we can get away with being unjust? Support your answers.
1. Be independent
2. Have integrity
3. Be Honest
4. Be Just
Discuss the laissez-faire capitalist claim that people are essentially rational and prudent. What might keep people from being rational and prudent? Are people behaving immorally when they do not act in a prudent and rationally self-interested manner?
Discuss the Marxist analysis of Ayn Rand’s position. How does it response to the importance that Rand placed on the protection of people’s liberty rights and the freedom to pursue their own interests? Would Rand approve of the use of cheap labour by the multinational corporations in poorer nations? Why or Why not? What solution might she suggest for dealing with the problems of starvation and the plight of poorer nations in the world economy? Support your answer.
Critically analyse James Rachels’ claim that ethical egoism fails as a moral theory since it cannot be universalized. Use specific examples to support your answer.
Explain the difference between rule and act utilitarianism, also with two examples to contrast the concepts.
Exercise 3, Both ethical egoist Ayn Rand and utilitarian Jeremy Bentham regarded the Christian “virtue” of self-sacrifice as an obstacle of morality. However, both came to different conclusions about morality. Evaluate each of their positions and discuss how each might respond to the other’s argument.
Exercise 4 , Mill’s reformulation of utilitarianism, like social Darwinism, has been used ot morally justify a policy of cultural imperialism, where more educated Westerners could impose their pleasures and values on more “primitive cultures” under the guise of benefiting the people living in these cultures. Indeed, Mill himself was a supporter of British colonialism. Do you think this conclusion follows from the idea that the quality of some pleasures is greater than the quality of others? To what extent does this attitude lead to the neglect of the interests of certain groups of people in our own culture? Relate your answers to your community service work.
Question 1 OR 2 on Discuss whether you have a moral obligation to avoid, as much as possible, the products that were developed using animal experimentation.
Exercise 1, Tying rewards to individual merit puts tremendous pressure on people to achieve, often at the expense of others. Is out emphasis on individual merit as one of the criteria for giving out rewards—such as income, grades, and social recognition—simply a bias of our capitalist system, where people are expected to compete with one another for a share of social goods? Is there another system that might be preferable in terms of maximising the overall happiness of the community?
Write a short essay in response to Exercise
Confucius taught that our love should be strongest for our relatives and friends. Mo Tzu, in contrast, taught that universal love should not be partial or play favourites. Discuss these two competing concepts of moral obligation. Relate your answer to the concept of moral sensitivity in Chapter 3 as well as to Gilligan’s care ethics. Support your answer using examples from your own life.