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HIST 4360- Third Essay Assignment

Sep 15, 2023

Third Essay Assignment

‘The period covered by our second essay ended with the final years of the Porfiriato. For your final essay, please tell me what You have learned about Mexico in the three decades that followed.

Since we began our consideration of the events taking place from 1910 onward, we’ve discussed the military and political course of events in the 1910-1916 conflict, The height of the conflict came in 1916 when revolutionary Pancho Villa attacked the American border town of Columbus, New Mexico Mexican Border War (1910-1919) the political views of the leaders and factions involved in that conflict, the constitutional convention of 1916, the differences between that constitution and previous constitutions, the political structure emerging from that conflict, the effect of these developments on women’s rights and land ownership, the revolution and the Rio Grande Valley, the role of foreigners, the perceptions of this era. and that change that did or did not occur in Mexican society

Third Essay Assignment


Mexican independence is a revolutionary aspect of society. Moreover, this brought change to Mexican society; likewise, this happened to deal with the Constitutional development in 1917 that provided a separate civilization to all the people, as well as developing the society beyond any inequality. Thus, the Mexican Independence brought about changes to society, developing inspiration for them, giving rights to the labor class, and giving government ownership to the land holdings with a collaborative group. While Mexican politics revolved around a leadership personality and developing a charismatic belief to bring forth fixed ideologies. Lastly, this society brought an immense change to the position of women.

Military and Political course of events from 1910-1916 

The Military and Political course of events that shaped Mexico as a country between 1910 to 1916 are termed as Mexican Revolution. These events came to be known as “the defining event of modern Mexican history.” The political nature of Mexico began to change in 1910; the President of 3 decades Porfirio Díaz, was challenged by wealthy northern landowner Francisco I. Madero (Kent Carrasco 1088). The latter was jailed for this challenge. As a result of this, Rebellion occurred in Madero. The Federal Army was unsuccessful in suppressing that Rebellion. Thereafter, Diaz resigned and went into exile, and Madero was elected as President.

In 1911 Emiliano Zapata, in Morelos, rose in another armed rebellion along with peasants demanding the quick passage of the promised agrarian reforms. This Rebellion was followed by a series of other regional rebellions in various parts of the country. Seeing the weakness of the President and his regime, in 1913, several army generals of the Diaz Regime organized a coup d’etat that resulted in Madero and Vice President Pino Suárez resigning. After these events, a new president Victoriano Huerta was appointed, who ordered the assassination of Madero and Suarez. The prevalent dissatisfaction amongst the northerners led to their conflict with the counter-revolutionary regime of Huerta. Another force entered this conflict, which was the Constitutionalist Army under the leadership of Venustiano Carranza. In the conflict that continued from 1913 to 1914, the revolutionary army defeated the Federal Army and ended Huerta’s regime. After this victory garnered by the Revolutionary armies, several factions of the group began to fight with each other, ultimately resulting in the victory of the Constitutionalist faction under Carranza against the army led by his former ally Francisco “Pancho” Villa. 

Revolutionary Pancho Villa attacking the American Border Town of Columbus, New Mexico         

In order to sustain against Venustiano Carranza, Revolutionary Pancho Villa needed resources, and in order to garner them, he and his remaining forces attacked the American Border Town of Columbus, New Mexico. As a reason for this attack, Pancho Villa told his soldiers that Americans were supporting Carranza, reinforcing the garrisons of his army. The soldiers became angry when they came to know of the fact that the American authorities had arrested, deloused, and burned alive 20 Mexican men (Katz 4). After entering Columbus town, the first course of action undertaken by Villa’s men was attacking the army barracks. Then they began to shoot at houses and any civilians that came out of the houses. Then they entered a hotel and killed four guests. Villa, along with his men, was on the Mexican side of the border while his men were searching for Sam Ravel, who had taken money from Villa in order to buy arms but never delivered them to him. It took Americans considerable time to recoup. After understanding the situation and their opponents, the Americans began to shoot at the Mexicans during the predawn. The raiders had started a fire at the hotel that they had attacked, which aided the Americans in their attack. After an overwhelming attack and fight, a retreat was sounded from the Mexicans. This retreat was accepted, and Mexicans withdrew back to their side of the border.           

The Americans returned with a vengeance and pursued Villa for about five miles into Mexico. They met with strong resistance and retreated back to Columbus. This was a resounding victory for Villa after a humiliating defeat against Carranza.

Mexican Border War         

This conflict resulted in the heightening of the ongoing Mexican Border war. Mexican Border War is the term that has been applied to the series of struggles that happened at the Mexican-American border during the Mexican Revolution (Levinson 10). As a result of World War I, Germany, during this time, persuaded Mexico to attack America and also involved themselves in struggles against America on the Mexican-American border. During the beginning of the Mexican Revolution, American authorities stationed their soldiers on the border and, in various instances, fought against the Mexican Rebels. This Border War came to a conclusion in 1920 at the close of the American frontier. As a reaction to Villa and his men’s raid General John J. Pershing, caused the ‘Punitive Expedition’ where they killed many men of Villa, including his top two generals. Though they failed to capture Villa. The American Army continued to launch several small expeditions until they managed to achieve victory in the Battle of Ambos Nogales in August 1918. After this victory, a permanent border wall was created. Apart from Villas and his men, the American forces also fought with Maderistas, Carrancistas, Constitutionalistas, and Germans on the American border. During the Border War U.S. also attempted to monitor and control the flow of immigrants into their country. They also interfered with the war supplies by Germany to Mexico during World War I.

Political Views of the Leaders involved in the conflict           

Venustiano Carranza was supported by liberals and intellectuals. His political views adhered to the ideals of democracy. He and his faction desired a constitution that had laws and rules that would be followed by Mexicans irrespective of class (Harris 280). His supporters were known as Constitutionalists or Carrancistas. Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata led a faction in the Revolution known as Conventionists. Firstly they were allied with Carranza against the Federal Army and later on went against them after the Federal Army suffered a defeat in the Mexican Revolution. Zapata was raised in Rebellion in order to bring speedy agrarian reforms. The faction of Conventionalists specifically Villa and Zapata, desired radical and immediate land reforms. They also wanted to redistribute the land in accordance with the plan developed by Emiliano Zapata. They also desired a form of government that was decentralized. They desired state autonomy in the power structure of the government. As a result of these core ideals, which were rooted in the benefits of the agrarian class, a large number of supporters garnered by Villa and Zapata in the Mexican Revolution were from the rural countryside. These people wanted reform in their lives through the ideals supported by Villa Zapata.  

The political leaders had a view that predicted the Revolution that Spanish leaders brought liberal over thoughts to the autocratic society that rules discussed Ferdinand VIIin the year 1820, related to the conservatives undertaken by native Spain, to maintain the political independence position. Therefore, by the end of the 17th century, there was a major riot in Mexico related to the plebian mob in an attempt to dwell on the notion of burning out the viceroy’s place and the archbishop. Therefore, the riots mainly took place because of no repercussions made against the instigators that motivated the plebeians to be the riot attackers with political slogans –”Kill the [American-born] Spaniards and the Gachupines [Iberian-born Spaniards] who eat our corn!”

The leaders’ views changed during the Mexican Revolution because this sparked out from the time 1917 that provided a separate Church and a state, with government ownership of the subsoil. This often held the land by the communal group of people, with the right to labor in order to be organized to the strike and different things related to the aspirations. Yet, Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla, likely known as the father of Mexican Independence, launched the Mexican Rebellion with the “Cry of Dolores,” the populist army that came forth to capture the Mexican capital. 

The factors involved in the conflicts 

The factors involved in the conflicts were reliable about the proposed blueprint related to the Independence that called out to the Plan De Iguala. This plan mainly guarantees the preservation of the Catholic Church and its status, the Independence of Mexico as a Constitutional monarchy and the equality of the Spaniards and criollos. These factors mainly relied upon the notion that determined the Mexican Independence with a prolonged conflict that originated based on inequality, while this happened to exist between the social classes that developed the nation at a specified time, with inclusion to as well as the caste system which is based on hierarchal order of the country (Carey 20). Indeed this led to make the establishment of Bourbon reforms, Patriotism, and conflict.

The Constitutional Convention of 1916 

The Constitutional Convention of 1916 mainly established the radical nature of the society; rather, this incorporated the reforms based on the 1916 to 1917 basis. This is mainly focused on the consequent controversy that has the tendency to obscure the constitution-making Assembly (Niemeyer 226). Therefore, these are often created in the venture to the reform, which appeared to be mainly working in the scenario to work for the Assembly since this relied upon the Mexican Revolution that began in the year 1910 without any program to bring forth a social reform without any leaders based on the school theory as well as they have been practicing the Social Revolution. The Difference between the Constitution and the Previous Constitution Previously, Mexican society was undertaken by inequality, as they used to find the society deprived of food shortage, no equal places, or justice given to the people in the society. Therefore, the food shortage took place mainly due to the growing population as well as a severe drought that happened in the year 1785, and the other was in the year 1808. Moreover, none was there to support the spine of Mexican society. Likewise, they used to face severe difficulties. Yet, later, the Constitution dealt with Mexico’s Constitution presented with new facts and startling new interpretations. While the Mexican Revolution brought a change to society with a repressive and wealthy regime under political security, specific economic support was given to the government. Instead of analyzing how this Constitution has brought a Revolution’s successes, Niemeyer mainly concentrates on an eighth week’s ferment at Querétaro in 1916 and 1917. This convention accelerated the delegates who wrote about the remarkable charter. Likewise, this is the process undertaken by Niemeyer to discuss the nature of the Mexican Revolution.

The effects of these developments on women’s rights and land ownership

Perhaps, this is true that females were allies discriminated against by the leading society, as it was learned that they were the only ones who were oriented to do household work (Escandón 90). Moreover, the Mexican Independence brought an enormous change to the society that related to bringing change to the status of women in the society. Moreover, women had the [priority to work, as well as they, were not discriminated against the society. Apart from this, Mexican Independence yields some fruit to the women, even in getting ownership of the land. In the year 1915, the Mexican woman obtained the right to divorce and get relief from domestic violence or sexual attacks. Thus, this expanded later, which included the rights to their alimony and even to get child custody. By the year 1916, women were mainly granted the permission which stated that the convene Feminist Congress or Primer Congreso Femista.

The Revolution and the Rio Grande Valley

Therefore, in order to discover the central theme of the Mexican Revolution, this was identified that Mexican Independence was like a prolonged conflict. Yet, it originated due to the inequality taking place in the society and related to the existence of the social classes that developed the nation. Indeed this inclusion was based on the so-called caste system or a typical hierarchical order followed by the people of the country (Alvarez 54). Yet, this was based on establishing the Bourbon reforms, Patriotism and that seemed to have no connection with any of the events, rather in the case of the Independence that happened in the United States. On the other hand, Rio Grande Valley plays a significant role because this valley has seen all the alleys take place in society. As a result, the Rio Grande Valley played a vital role in the Mexican-American War, as it played the border to the skirmish; along with this, it started off the fighting that followed a series of U.S. Victories. Thus, this was projected to the witness of the crime that took place and how the entire valley was polluted by the war and witness humanity at that stature.

The role of the foreigners. 

The influence of the Napoleon Ministry of Foreign Affairs was actually articulated by the circular to all the authorities where the Indies were informed about the various changes undertaken by the dynasty with a single province which was accepted by the authority with a new name Monarch. Apart from this, foreigners helped to develop the nation, as in the case of Ferdinand VII squandered gold in anti-constitutional conspiracies, which aroused and raised parties entitled by the Armies of the Faith, which promised to promote anarchy. While this was stipulated with the ministry to contemplate, and overthrew governments, as they refused to sign any projects that said for Cortes with the assistance of the foreign governments.

The influence of the Mexican Independence brought a turnover to all the inequalities to the society (Wilkie 12). Moreover, it is found that the Independence saw several collapses to all the royal governments in Mexico and the treaty of Cordoba that ended in a conflict. The changes the society that the Mexican Revolution sparked the Constitutional by the year 1917, which provided a separate Church as well as a state, without the influence of the authoritarian society., Moreover, the government at its ownership dealt with the land and governed the land to develop a collaborative group, giving priority to women, and none was discriminated against the society. Even women had the right to divorce and get a good chance in society. Therefore, this gave rights to laborers who organized a strike with different aspirations.


The Mexican Revolution in many ways was the battle of ideologies. It was evident that the present system prevalent in the society was no longer viable, and a new ideology needed to come in the position of authority. The main conflict was between Democratic and radicalistic ideals. Ultimately, the Democratic ideals prevailed, but the conflict had long-reaching effects on Mexican society and its various elements. It made people realize that through determination and willpower, they can make political authorities, listen to their demands. It also transformed the relationship shared by Mexico as a country with America and Germany. The Mexican Revolution transformed Mexico into a country for eternity.

Works Cited

Wilkie, James W. “The Mexican Revolution.” The Mexican Revolution. University of California Press, 2020.

Alvarez, C. J. “2 THE BORDER AND THE MEXICAN REVOLUTION.” Border Land, Border Water. University of Texas Press, 2021. 53-94.

Escandón, Carmen Ramos. “Women and power in Mexico: the forgotten heritage, 1880–1954.” Women’s Participation in Mexican Political Life. Routledge, 2019. 87-102.

Niemeyer, E. V. “8. In Retrospect.” Revolution at Querétaro. University of Texas Press, 2021. 225-234.

Carey, James C. The Mexican Revolution in Yucatán, 1915-1924. Routledge, 2019.

Harris, Fred R. “Mexico: Historical Foundations.” Latin America, its Problems and its Promise. Routledge, 2019. 277-297.

Levinson, Irving W. “The Other Constitutional Convention: Border Delegates at the Mexican Constitutional Convention of 1916-1917.” Journal of South Texas 33.1 (2019): 8.

Katz, Friedrich. “Pancho Villa and the United States.” CONFIGURATIONS OF POWER: 281.

Kent Carrasco, Daniel. “Breath of revolution: Ghadar anti-colonial radicalism in North America and the Mexican revolution.” South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies 43.6 (2020): 1077-1092.

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