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PSYC 109- Chapter Outline #9

Aug 16, 2023

Can you provide me with a clear and concise summary or Outline of Physical and Cognitive Development in Adolescence? Please ensure that no crucial details are left out and that it is presented in the same formal style as the original text.

Chapter Outline #9: Physical and Cognitive Development in Adolescence

  1. The nature of adolescence:
  2. Adolescent’s face: It is included new experiences, the new task of development, and biological changes.
  3. Influence on the adolescent: It is included gender, ethnic, cultural, age, socioeconomic, and lifestyle differences.
  4. Youth benefits: It can happen when they have adults like their guardians or parents who are loving and caring. The people’s surroundings like coaches, teachers, mentors, coaches, and advocates can also give care to the child.
  5. Physical Changes:
  6. Puberty: It is the period of physical maturation that occurs during early adolescence which involves bodily and hormonal changes. It is included height weight and sexual maturation.
  7. Hormonal Changes: These include hormones that are secrets from the endocrine glands and are carried by the bloodstream.
  8. Variations and timing: Since the 19th century the average age of menarche has declined significantly. It includes the improvement of health and nutrition.
  9. Body Image: Throughout adolescence the preoccupation with body image is strong. Girls generally have more negative images of their bodies.
  10. Early and Late maturation: In the case of boys, they view themselves more positively and have successful peer relations. In the case of girls, their early satisfaction with them is greater and their late satisfaction with them is less.
  • Changes in Brain:
  1. Corpus callosum: It is located in the place where the brain’s feet and right hemisphere are connected by fibers.
  2. Limbic system: The brain’s part where rewards and emotions are processed.
  3. Amygdala: the region of the brain for emotion.
  4. The prefrontal cortex is involved in self-control, reasoning, and decision-making.
  5. Adolescent Sexuality:
  6. Adolescence: It is the time for sexual experimentation and exploration. During this time the children develop deep curiosity, experience confusion and vulnerability, and explore sexual culture through television, the internet, videos, and magazines.
  7. sexual identity development: Children learn to manage their sexual feelings by developing certain forms of sexuality.
  8. Sexual Identity: It is included with the style of behavior, an indication of sexual orientation, interests, and activities.
  9. Same-sex attraction: same-sex attraction is experienced by some people during this time of development including lesbians, gays, and bisexuals.
  10. Adolescent Sexual Behaviour Timing: there are various surveys conducted by the U.S. national survey in the year 2015 on the percentage of sexually active adolescent children.
  11. Report of oral sex rate: it is included with the percentage of sexually active ages of boys and girls.
  12. Risk factor: There are certain risk factors in the sexual behavior of adolescents that are included drug use, problems related to school, family, and peer problems.
  13. Risk factor lowering: The risk factor in adolescent sexual behavior can be lowered by family connectedness, parental monitoring, and partner connectedness.
  14. Contraceptive Use: Contraceptives are not used by adolescents consistently. Teens in the US are less likely to use contraceptives than their European counterparts.
  15. STI Problems: It is included with anal and oral problems of genitalia. STI is acquired by three million American adolescents.
  16. Adolescent Pregnancy: Teen pregnancy and the rate of birth are highest in the U.S. It risks the health of both mother and the baby. Most of the mothers never economically catch up due to their school dropouts.
  17. Issues in adolescent health:
  18. Adolescent health:
  19. During adolescence, the behavior of adulthood’s poor and good health habits begins. There is less intake of vegetables and food. Habits of Exercise and nutrition can be positively influenced by families and friends.
  20. Sleep patterns: A maximum of US adolescents have inconsistent sleep patterns that are included inattention, problems related to peers and emotions, suicidal ideation, and anxiety.
  21. Leading causes of death in adolescence: It is included homicide, suicide, the majority of car accidents, and unintentional injuries.
  22. Substance Use and Abuse:
  • One of the highest rates of drug use during adolescence is in the United States. It can be prevented by peers, parents, and educators.
  1. Eating disorders:
  2. Anorexia Nervosa: It is related to thinness due to starvation. The main characteristics of this disorder are weight loss of almost eighty-five percent, fear of weight gain, and amenorrhea.
  3. Bulimia Nervosa: It is included with consistent purge and binge patterns. In this disorder, individuals are preoccupied with food, anxious or depressed, have distorted body image, and fall within the typical normal range of weight.
  4. Adolescent Cognition:
  5. Piaget’s Theory: It is the formal operational stage with concrete and abstract thoughts, increased problem solve ability, increased tendency of thoughts, the tendency of thoughts of possibilities, and idealism with logic.
  6. Evaluation of Piaget’s theory: According to research there is much more variation of the individual in the case of envisioned Piaget. In cognitive development education and culture exert a stronger influence.
  • Adolescent Egocentrism: It is included with heightened self-consciousness of adolescents that is included with imaginary audience ad personal fable. According to recent studies, greater use of social networking is connected to higher narcissism levels.
  • Information Processing:
  1. Cognitive control: It is the control of thinking in certain areas. It includes the reduction of interfering thoughts and attention.
  2. Decision Making: Different decisions are taken by adolescents when they are around their peers than alone. It follows Fuzzy-trace Theory with the dual-process model.
  3. Critical Thinking: It is cognitive changes that are included with critical thinking, automaticity, increased speed, and information processing capacity. In a variety of domains, there is more breadth of knowledge content.
  4. Schools:
  5. The transition of junior to high school: It includes drop-in school satisfaction. However, it becomes less stressful when there is a positive relationship between students. It is also included with the Top-dog phenomena.
  6. Effective Schools for Young Adolescents: smaller communities are developed that decrease middle school impersonality. There is an involvement of community and parent leaders. It is integrated with several disciplines of flexible curriculum.
  7. High School:
  8. Combating the issues faced by students: It increases the counseling services of schools, improves parental monitoring, and expands extracurricular activities.
  9. Dropping out: It is included with early intervention and helps to monitor.
  10. Extracurricular Activities: It is included sports, band, drama, academic clubs, and math clubs. The extracurricular activities of high-quality care are provided by supportive and competent adult mentors.
  11. Service Learning: It is an educational form that promotes social responsibility and community service.
  12. Activity engagement: It is included tutoring, working in a hospital, helping older adults, and cleaning the vacant lot to make a playing area.
  13. Benefits: It is included high grades and self-esteem, setting the learning goal, and the ability to help others.

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