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PSY 2060- Week 7 Discussion

Aug 24, 2023

Representation in Research

Sooyan wants to study perceptions of sports advertising on a college campus. The student body at this university is 60% female and 40% male. He advertises for his study and there is a strong interest among the student body. He obtains statistically significant results and is looking forward to publishing them. However, after he had finished his study and two days before his project was due, he realized that his sample included 70% males and 30% females.

About the above scenario, answer the following questions:

Does this represent proper quota or stratified sampling?

What do you think Sooyan should do?

List three research strategies each, you can use to follow both quota and stratified sampling.

Using the South University Online Library, find and summarize three articles. Focus on the methods they used to ensure representation.

Do you think any of these methods are also applicable in research involving animals?

Week 7 Discussion

  • This represents a stratified sampling strategy from a statistical perspective. With stratified sampling, a researcher divides the total population into various subgroups or divisions before randomly selecting the final participants proportionately from each category. Although it would be preferable to use simple random sampling.
  • I think Sooyan should move forward with presenting the research as the data passes the bias test in which it was given that the survey included participants of both genders.
  • For effective research, I am going to use the following strategies to follow both quota and stratified sampling :
  • Before the investigation begins, the appropriate sample size should be calculated.
  • To eliminate bias, samples should be chosen separately as well as randomly.
    • Following the rules for selecting samples within the designated sample frames.

    Article 1: “Incorporating Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion (DEI) into Research”.

    Summary: The importance of work in diversity, equality, and inclusion (DEI) has never been greater than it is now. The demographic data indicates that the white population has decreased for the very first time in US existence (Colón-Aguirre & Bright, 2022, p.33).  Library and information science (LIS) research continues to be centered on majority groups despite demographic developments that show a higher percentage of racial and ethnic minorities make up most of American society. Self-awareness, positional, and sample techniques are the primary concepts covered in this area. Although not all-inclusive, the ideas presented here are simple methods that researchers might become more deliberate in including historically excluded people in their research. The concepts presented in this work are intended to assist those who are thinking about incorporating DEI issues into their existing research agendas as well as LIS educators in laying the groundwork for solid research that prioritizes DEI while supervising students’ research initiatives.

    The method used to ensure representation is “quota sampling” representation. To produce a quota sample based on the percentages, participants must be gathered until the sample percentages equal the population percentages, or until 87 percent of the population is white, 4 percent Black or African American, and 4 percent Asian.

    Article 2: “Undergraduate students’ perspectives of healthcare professionals’ use of shared decision-making skills”.

    Summary: The ability to identify appropriate shared decision-making (SDM) reactions when mediating conversations with patients and family members is crucial for future healthcare professionals (HCPs) to provide moral and sympathetic patient-centered care (PCC) as a team. This study aimed to assess undergraduate students’ viewpoints on how HCPs used SDM as reported in a case-study reflection assignment. Student reflection assignments were examined using an exploratory qualitative methodology (Hendricks-Ferguson et al. 2018, p.485). At a Midwest-based institution in the United States, the sample consisted of 42 undergraduate students taking an interprofessional education (IPE) course. Student opinions about the suggested SDM replies by HCPs were gathered through their responses to a course reflection assignment, which served as the source of the data.

    The method used to ensure representation is stratified sampling representation.  To reflect the eight healthcare professionals (HCP) positions, student assignments were chosen at random using stratified sampling. Two themes emerged from the analysis about how the shared decision-making (SDM) replies were used by the students. The findings back up the claim that through participating in IPE, healthcare students can gain knowledge of SDM and PCC-related ethical standards.

    Article 3: “Perceived factors affecting students’ academic performance in Nigerian Universities”.

    Summary: In the past two decades, social scientists from a variety of areas have discussed how well students succeed academically. But unfortunately, there haven’t been nearly enough studies in this field done in Nigeria. This study was conducted to solve this clear research gap. In this study, potential variables that can have an impact on student’s academic performance in Nigerian universities were investigated (Aihie & Ohanaka, 2019, p.56). They were categorized into factors that were related to students, lecturers, institutions, and homes. The researchers also found that institutional, home-related, student, professor, and student-related factors all significantly contributed to students’ poor academic performance in Nigerian universities.

    The method used to ensure representation is “stratified sampling” representation. A questionnaire of 400 respondents was conducted using a descriptive methodology, and the respondents were chosen using a stratified random selection procedure to guarantee a balanced representation of ethnicity and sex. The Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 21 was used to evaluate quantitative data using percentages, means, t-tests, and multiple regression analysis. According to the findings, students, lecturers, and institutional-related factors are the main variables influencing students’ academic success at Nigerian universities.

    No, I do not think that any of these methods are also applicable to research involving


    Aihie, O. N., & Ohanaka, B. I. (2019). Perceived academic stress among undergraduate students in a Nigerian University. Journal of Educational and Social Research9(2), 56-56.

    Colón-Aguirre, M., & Bright, K. (2022). Incorporating Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion (DEI) into Research. Journal of Education for Library and Information Science, e20210013.

    Hendricks-Ferguson, V. L., Ruebling, I., Sargeant, D. M., Kienstra, K., Eliot, K. A., Howell, T. G., … & Armstrong, K. (2018). Undergraduate students’ perspectives of healthcare professionals’ use of shared decision-making skills. Journal of Interprofessional Care32(4), 481-489.

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