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POL 330- Week 6 Assignment: Part I

Aug 21, 2023


In Part I this week, choose a case from your state that involves civil rights or civil liberties that was decided by the United States Supreme Court. If your state does not have a case that was decided by the United States Supreme Court, choose a civil rights case from another state for which the United States Supreme Court issued a decision.

Here is a brief description of civil rights and civil liberties: Civil rights refers to equal social opportunities under the law. It gives you these freedoms such as the right to vote, the right to public education, or a fair trial, among other things, regardless of your wealth or race. Civil liberties mean freedom of religion, equal treatment and due process under the law, and the right to privacy.

You should be able to go online and look up your state and famous cases decided by the Supreme Court. For example, Brown v Board of Education (1951) started in Topeka, Kansas, and ended up in the Supreme Court of the United States. Another example would be Calvary Chapel Dayton Valley v Steve Sisolak, Governor of Nevada (2020) which started in Nevada and ended up in the United States Supreme Court. A good source of information about cases decided by the United States Supreme Court is Other sources can be researched online using search terms for “civil rights cases decided by the U.S. Supreme Court.” Be sure to use a case decided by the United States Supreme Court, and not a case decided by your state’s supreme court or a different court. A case that is still pending before the United States Supreme Court should not be used.

Week 6 Assignment: Part I: How the Courts Address or Respect Our Rights as Citizens-Outline

1. Summary of the Case

The selected case, Hernandez v. Texas, is introduced by the year 1954 in the landmark decision which holds on civil rights decided by the United States Supreme Court issues based on the final ruling system that can be clarified the way based on the American legal system. Hence, this is mainly handled on the charges made to the case that took place in discrimination taking place among the Mexican-American society. In Hernandez v. Texas, the case unanimously takes hold of the Fourteenth Amendment which applies to the racial and ethnic group that faces discrimination. This case efficiently broadens the Civil Rights laws that include Hispanics and all other non-whites. The defendant here is Peter Hernandez, from Mexico, where he used to be an agricultural laborer, while he was part of those who migrated to Texas during the Second World War. Therefore, the defender was convicted to kill Joe Espinosa, who was shot at the bar in Edna, Texas within the Jackson Country. Later on, the legal team defended Hernandez which was composed of lawyers who championed Latino Civil Rights and had a good place in the League of United Latin American Citizens that appealed for the case to be dismissed (Preuss, 2008).

Fourteenth Amendment was passed later on in the year 1868 that eventually guaranteed Equal Protection under the Constitution for giving liberty to re-live all African-Americans, Hispanics, or the non-whites, under the legal team to create a defendant that claimed to be deprived of all the Equal Protection, Equal Rights and discriminated within the society, that prevents him for being tried by the jury peers. Hence, this was emphasized as per the records made by the jury selected by Jackson Country, Texas. As this was the area based on a substantial Hispanic population with 6,000 jurors for 25 years, while none of the jurors had a Hispanic last name. However, the Fourteenth Amendment was eventually passed in the year 1868 which guaranteed to provide Equal Protection under the law for all the African American people. Thus, Hernandez’s lawyers have been claiming on the note to bring Equal protection for all the ones who are discriminated against, thus, this prevented them from being injured.

Despite Texas appeals to the court that upholds Hernandez’s conviction, under the case the entered the Supreme Court. Therefore, the lawyers have stated about the State of Texas denied the charge of discrimination which argued, as well as this emphasized creating discrimination that prohibited the Fourteenth Amendment, which is applicable for giving freedom to all African Americans or non-white people within the community. Therefore, Chief Justice Earl Warren dismissed the notion while mentioning about the Fourteenth Amendment which is not directly against discrimination based on the “Two-class Theory”, between the ‘white’ and the ‘blacks’ (Preuss, 2008).

Therefore, the decision made by the Supreme Court that justified under the Fourteenth Amendment, which is applied to racial minorities, and not just to the African-Americans. Therefore, this was recorded to be a historic event that brought victory for the Hispanic community people, under the minority group based on shouting for Equal Protection to overcome racial discrimination. Hernandez v. Texas case mainly ensured the moment the legal progress for the minorities to get the victory for all.           

2. Case Outline

a. Title: Supreme Court rules in Hernandez v. Texas

Facts of the case: the facts of the case mainly revolve around the fact that Peter Hernandez, who was an agricultural worker, that indicted to be the murderer of Joe Espinoza, at the bar, by the Anglo grand jury in Jackson County, Texas. Therefore, this case mainly claims at the Mexican-Americans were mainly barred based on the injury commission that was selected by the juries, where Hernandez’s attorneys mainly tried to quash the petit panel that was called services. Hence, this was because of the person based on the Mexican descendants that excluded from the jury services for the case. Therefore, the Mexican American shall not serve on the jury of Jackson County for more than 25 years. Therefore, Hernandez claimed about the Mexican ancestry citizens who were discriminated against in Jackson County. Therefore, the trial of this court was mainly denied of its motion, where Hernandez was found to be guilty of the murder and then he was convicted, and then later on, he was sentenced by the Anglo jury, to life in prison. Therefore, based on the affirmation by the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals that found Mexican members, the classification to the white race to distinguish from the members of the Negro Race (Supreme., 2021). Alternatively, rejection of the petitioner on the argument was taken care of under the “special class”.  Moreover, the court has to point out so far which is advised by the members of the Mexican nationally, that confronted with the classification, with the white or the Caucasian.

Therefore, based on the jury, this is mainly focused on the racial characteristics that were influenced by the factors noted under the Constitutional factors. On the contrary, it is the second fact, where we must be determined about the discriminatory factors based on the present situation. For instance, according to the basic process, Supreme Court mainly justifies the plea of the defendant under the legal council, based on the court to make an investigation under the Mexican American taking place in Texas. Thus, the investigation proceeded with a process to discover the county-wide distinction taken between the “whites”, and the Mexican immigrants (, 2021). Hence, with the factual evidence, the following was discovered based on making a better investigation. at least one of the restaurants prominently displayed a sign which was declaring “No Mexicans Served”. Mexican American children were allowed to attend the school, as they have been facing segregation. Apart from this, the Mexican American students were forced to drop out after, they reach the fifth or the sixth grade.

Based on these factors, the Supreme Court could give a fair decision. Therefore, the ultimate ruling after the FourteeAmendmentment mainly protects about the person, beyond the racial classes, with the whites or the black Americans under the Fourteenth Amendment that extended on the protection to learn about the nationality under the groups to live in America.

History of the case:

According to the State law of Texas, the Mexicans were considered to be whites while the Fourteenth Amendment did not protect the White nationality groups. Therefore, Texas Court under the Criminal Appeals to learn about the Interpretation of the State laws that were denied under Sanchez’s motion that have to argue based on the Mexican members, who are classified as the white race who are distinguished from being the members of the black race or Hispanic community. Therefore, this was fully rejected by the petitioner to deal with the argument under the “special class”, under the same meaning of the Fourteenth Amendment. Therefore, this was emphasized under the Mexican nationality that shall never be challenged about the classification under the white Caucasian. Therefore, in case of the state law, which is interpreted by the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals thwarted the hope of Hernandez’s team to challenge what is been described as a systematic exclusion of the person based under Mexican origin from the different types of juries and their duties (Soltero, 2006).   

Legal questions:

Related to the Local Court of Texas that stimulated Sanchez to be guilty, based on the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals which denied the motion of Sanchez, to learn about the case which went on to the highest court, on the legal basis under the decision taken up by the Supreme Court that needs to be decided in the Fourteenth Amendment which applied or it is applicable for all the racial minorities so that they can also attain equal respect in the society. Thus, this is not just form for the African-Americans. Therefore, the decision taken under the Fourteenth Amendment was mainly applied to the people who were discriminated against on racial grounds, to reduce immense consequences taking place to the Hispanic community or any other minority group, so that they can also get Equal Protection that they shall not get discriminated on their racial ground (Preuss, 2008). Therefore, as stated in the Civil Rights Movement which progressed through the decision taken place under the Hernandez v. Texas case which often ensured every moment under the legal progress for the minor citizens of America, while winning victory for all the people.

Decision or holdings:

The court decided Hernandez v. Texas, to be a landmark hat s regarded based on Hispanic civil rights. Therefore, the justice has d unanimously overturned the murder of the convicted person, because Mexican-American has barred from participating in the juries that indicated he was being convicted, thus, this case decided the future of the African-American minorities. Therefore, as discussed above based on the decision taken place by the Local Court of Texas and the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals that rejected the appeal under the Sanchez team. Apart from this, the case mainly brought out the Supreme Court, where Sanchez pleaded to accept the negotiation. Thus, later the Supreme Court takes up the decision while creating a justification under the Fourteenth Amendment which is applied under the racial minorities for all the racial minority people, that is the Hispanic, the non-whites, the migrant minorities along with the African Americans ( 2019).

Verdict and opinion (judgment):

The petitioner Peter Hernandez, went to the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals which affirmed the judgment based on the trial court since the time.  Hence, before this, the trial took place in Supreme Court, where the petitioner was altogether under the counsel, who was offered about the motion which is considered to be an indictment under the jury panel. Therefore, the counsel argued for the act which asserted the exclusion of the Mexican-American class based on the justice system that deprived Sanchez to be a member, while creating equal protection (Soltero, 2006). Therefore, after a series of hearing the trial court denied the actual motion. Therefore, this motion was mainly brought into the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals, with further shreds of evidence that are taken care of. Later on, Mr. Chief Justice Warren have delivered his opinion n the Supreme Court, which affirmed the judgment based on the trial court, which is considered and is often based on the substantial Federal question which was raised by the petitioner. Therefore, later it was granted on a written writ of certiorari to review the taken decision.

Therefore, numerous decisions were taken up by the Supreme Court based on the issue that accelerated with a denial of Equal Protection based on the laws that try the defendant to give respect to people, who were discriminated against on racial grounds.  Therefore, the indictment solely took place because of the discrimination that took place due to the differentiation taken place due to race or one’s color which was excluded from the State after the decision took place in this case. Therefore, the Supreme Court reiterates to look forward to the note of the Fourteenth Amendment and the jurisdiction that covers the Mexican-American based on the given Equal Protection to minorities.

Later on, the Supreme Court took care of this case, in the probable cause, about the petitioner under the legal counsel of Sanchez who was a burden to prove that there was discrimination. Therefore, the counsel later relied on the basic pattern that often proves the establishment of the case Norris v. State Alabama that proved the Negros constituted a substantial segment of the jurisdiction. Apart from this, “prima facie”, is done on a systematic exclusion for blacks that holds on the jury services under the “rule of exclusion”, that delineated the Mexican-American. Therefore, the court omitted to focus on the fact declaring about creating the Constitutional Protection for the Negroes (, 2019).

The decision taken up by the court mainly discloses the theory that the court has discovered a big disparity that is deprived within the society between the “White”, and the “non-whites”. Therefore, for this reason, the Mexican parents stated that the non-white students could only get an education to the fifth or the sixth grade, which ultimately ruled the Fourteenth Amendment, which protects all persons based on racial minorities, with extended protection created the national protection.               

3. Conclusion

This can be concluded that the decision which is taken by the Supreme Court to remove discrimination towards Mexican-Americans and the minorities who are living in America. Thus, developing the Equal Protection Act based on Civil Rights, reports and studies have noted that to date, discrimination is taking place based on racial discrimination. Therefore, this case plays a significant role, which has helped to develop the theory that all human beings are equal and should not be discriminated against.

References (2019). Supreme Court rules in Hernandez v. Texas, broadening civil rights laws. HISTORY. Retrieved from [Retrieved on April 4, 2022]

Preuss, G. B. (2008). ” Colored Men and Hombres Aquí”:” Hernandez v. Texas” and the Rise of Mexican American Lawyering.

Soltero, Carlos R. (2006). “Hernandez v. Texas (1954) and the exclusion of Mexican-Americans and grand juries”. Latinos and American Law: Landmark Supreme Court Cases. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press. pp. 37-47. ISBN 0-292-71411-4.

Supreme. (2021). Hernandez v. Texas, 347 U.s. 475 (1954). (n.d.). Justia Law. Retrieved from [Retrieved April 3rd, 2022]

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