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POL 223- Module 7 Critical Assignment

Sep 14, 2023


Students will synthesize their learning by researching, comparing, and contrasting state and local implications during the COVID-19 emergency pandemic response. 

Students will select a county and review the Board of Supervisors’ policy actions, budgetary decisions, and public comments then evaluate the local response and actions versus those actions taken by the state. Did the County leaders support the State’s decisions or criticize them?

Explain if the concepts of devolution and Laboratories of Democracy played a role in the pandemic response. 

The student will either defend or criticize the county’s response and support all reasons why.   

This research paper will be 6-8 pages in length, double-spaced, with 1-inch margins in APA format.  (Title page and reference page are in addition to the 6-page minimum.)

Below you will find a detailed guideline with prompts to help you cover the issue fully.  Include these section titles within your final paper using APA format.

  1. Introduction and Background

The purpose of this section is to provide the reader with background information about the county’s Coronavirus Pandemic Response. 

The questions to answer are as follows:

  • What is coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)
  • What is an emergency use authorization and how was it being used to respond to COVID-19?
  • What is the State government’s Role in responding to the COVID-19 pandemic?
  • What is the Local Governments Role in responding to the COVID-19 pandemic?
  • What are the financial sources of funds used to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic?
    • Types of Assistance Programs
    • Funds for Personal Protective Equipment
    • Funds for Testing and/or vaccines
  • What specific role did the Local Public Health Officer play in the COVID-19 response?
  1. Statement of the Problem

The purpose of this section is to analyze the specific issues related to the COVID-19 pandemic response and the societal consequences. Questions to focus on in this section are as follows:

  • Using the comparative method, what are the similarities and differences in the state and local responses?
  • What are the ethical debates, or controversies associated with the closing places of worship during the pandemic? How are those ethical considerations related to principles, values, or biblical truths in the Christian Bible?

Current Policies

The purpose of this section is to analyze current policies (or programs) that deal with the problem. The questions to address are as follows:

  • What are some (choose 3) of the policies (State or local level)that address the COVID-19 pandemic response?
  • Has there been conflicting policies between the different levels of government?
  • Have the current policies solved, alleviated, exacerbated, or had no effect on the problem? Why or why not? 

Module 7 Critical Assignment

Introduction and Background

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19):

Coronavirus disease, known as COVID-19, is recognized as a highly infectious disease that causes severe respiratory system problems. This ailment was first discovered in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. This virus rapidly spread to different parts of the world, which caused a global pandemic. This disease is caused by transmission through the droplets of saliva or in contact with nose discharge, which is sneezing, through saliva from the infected person to an individual who is unhealthy. Therefore, over 41 million people around the globe were infected by this virus. Moreover, the International Government has stated about confirming about the 1 million death reports; as a result, it is related to the deaths caused due to disease of the period. While there is no specific treatment for this condition, the doctor’s boards have found that vaccinating the victims prevents people from such conditions (Kuang et al., 2020). Hence they can assist the patients in managing this disease. Therefore the Government has also taken several initiatives so that the public is aware that wearing masks, using sanitizers, and maintaining distance from each other shall help all to rescue this situation.      

The emergency use authorization in response to COVID-19:

In order to reduce the pandemic war, an Emergency use authorization authority mainly allows the FDA in order to help strengthen the nation’s public health protection while giving out emergency assistance to all the people within the nation. This is based on giving emergency assistance to most people who require exceptional guidance. However, in this case, the emergency use authorization was mainly produced to develop security for the pandemic. Yet, in case of an emergency yet is not possible to have all the different pieces of evidence gathered from the FDA, which is approved by the drug, the device, or doing a diagnostic test. Likewise, the health condition of the people due to the pandemic war was extremely serious, as the Government declared them to get emergency services and attention to establish full effectiveness and safety. Moreover, this evidence is strongly evident on the note that clearly suggests the patients who benefit from the treatment or the tests. In contrast, the agency has been issued with an EUA to make it possible to reach all the patients and assure them of their health.  

In order to recognize the symptoms of COVID-19, medical hospitals are required to learn the severity of the patients and shall help to understand the necessity to give the patients emergency treatment. Compared to the deal with the pandemic outbreak, which took place due to the revealing system of the severe signs of COVID-19 that involved trouble breathing because this causes severe lung damage and has an impact on the respiratory system. Moreover, this causes an acute attack caused by the virus to an insufficient oxygen supply to body tissues. In comparison, emergency care is required to be given to the patients because, due to COVID-19, the patient might experience extreme chest pain with breathing issues. Moreover, early symptoms are usually caused by a lack of smell or taste qualities. Later, this can effectively cause severe infection with drowsiness due to an inadequate oxygen supply to the brain. Patients with such symptoms must attend the curb to escape further complications, while they can develop probable mortality immediately.

The State Government’s Role in responding to the COVID-19 pandemic:

Under Section 2 of the act, the State government issues the regulation and the notification as it relates to the measures that can be taken to contain and spread COVID-19. Thus, the state government tackled the Central Ministries along with the State government in terms of strengthening the community with surveillance with quarantine facilities, giving the local Government to develop isolation wards in the hospital, along with adequate PPEs, trained human resources, with rapid response in terms to manage Covid-19. The Health crisis caused due to the Covid-19 pandemic mainly developed due to severe respiratory disorders. However, the state government is taking steps that involve creating quarantine zones for the public who cannot afford to stay in the hospitals. Excessive amounts of oxygen supply the patients so their brain tissues can be relieved. The state government can move toward particular circumstances based on reliving the patients to move forward with the circumstances. At the same time, they can shift away or focus on their populace’s well-being strategy and monetary reactions. Raising funds is deprived of the Government, which has reacted inside the structure to develop intensity assigned by the state government. At the same time, this is related to zeroing their crisis with powers made on the arrangement that can secure the residents and shall be backed up by the civil economies.   

The Local Governments Role in responding to the COVID-19 pandemic:      

Local Government mainly implements the activities while mandating the closure of the schools and the different forms of the business structure. Therefore, in case of imposing the lockdowns, quarantine houses, with imposing proper diagnostic centers that can relate to making a diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 Testing, they are even providing good quarantine services and contact tracing, with an improvement to surging the care. Moreover, conducting vaccination campaigns in order to reduce the number of patients. The Covid pandemic was a provoking system that delivered a comprehensive response developed by the administration and the local Government. The American Local Government has seen the worst due to the pandemic.

Nevertheless, research has mentioned that due to the delay in the response, Trump took part in taking thousands of lives and hampering small businesses. However, it needs more clarity and coordinating guidance from the National-level agencies. Therefore, it is combined with a lack of accurate data while prioritizing the protection relevant to the economy over the well-being of the civilians, which made it very difficult to deal with the local authorities to make timely decisions, eradicating public trust. In this case, the majority of the activities are part of the pandemic responses, which were implemented by the confirmation of the COVID-19 cities, as well as almost all local governments, to make a communication risk while mandating the behavioral change to coordinate the civil society and the community-based organization.    

The financial sources of funds used to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic:

The financial sources are funded in order to respond to the COVID-19 pandemic as the existing budget reprogrammed it. Moreover, this is often required to motivate and get funds under the database, with 40 funds compiled by the World Health Organization to gather funds to establish funds to assist the nation’s people in getting good diagnoses, tests, and medical assistance. Therefore, financial sources of funds are required to be developed enough so that this can establish the structure of 40 countries, which is established due to raising funds that can be supported through the border in response to the COVID-19 crisis, as well as the majority which requires to be extra-budgetary. Therefore, funds are created to develop health and maintain social maintenance. Moreover, this often leads to breaking the unified budgeting and spending approach.    

The different types of Assistance Programs:

Raising funds: Funds are raised by big business persons, as well as government firms along with other countries to have developed the funds to get assistance for the tests, treatments, and medical assistance to diagnose COVID-19 patients. On the other hand, raising funds often helped the patients stay isolated and in quarantine homes.    

Funds for Personal Protective Equipment: In order to develop the PPE mainly includes using surgical marks, oxygen cylinders, and filter respirators like P2 or N95 marks, with gloves, goggles, glasses, face shields, as well as aprons, in order to protect the self. Nevertheless, all these are given by the Government to most people so they can be rescued from the attack of COVID-19 (Alahdal et al., 2020).

Funds for Testing and vaccines: Funds must be raised to develop the testing ideas. Moreover, COVAX was found to co-ed with the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI) and GAVI, and apart from this, WHO, alongside the delivery partners with UNICEF, which is more likely to aim at accelerating the development to manufacture the Covid-19 vaccines that guarantee fair as well as equitable access to the different countries in the world (World Health Organization, 2020).      

The specific role the Local Public Health Officer plays in the COVID-19 response:

The specific role of Local Public Health Officer plays a significant role in COVID-19 responses to deal with the responsibilities of supporting to helping the health partners. This is related to implementing different strategies and policies to improve health responses during or even after the pandemic crisis. Moreover, consultation with the public health authorities can assist one in understanding the transmission of COVID-19 related to the community.       

Statement of the Problem

The similarities and differences in the state and local responses to Covid-19:

The similarities between the state and local government in response to Covid-19 are as follows:

  • Both state and local governments wanted to distribute proper public treatment distribution.
  • Developing quarantine wards, with mask-wearing and releasing ideas about social distancing.

Differences between the state and local government in response to Covid-19 are as follows:

  • States are involving various places to get prepared for different places to be hospitals
  • Locals often support a single place, while in the case of the state, they try to develop travel restriction quarantine homes to reduce coronavirus influx.

The ethical debates or controversies associated with the closing places of worship during the pandemic:

In order to deal with the ethical considerations related to the controversial aspect based on COVID-19. However, as per the biblical aspect associated with the controversies, to close the places for worship due to the pandemic. Moreover, this is true because, most of the time, worship often brings crowds to the nation. Additionally, crowds often bring forth the spread of the Covid-19 virus. However, due to this lockdown, Churches were kept closed, and the people could not do any religious activity that society opposed (Kuang et al., 2020).

Therefore, the case of Covid-19 related to the pandemic is a massive challenge to healthcare professionals and leaders. In order to keep it clear, due to the current overview that targets religious people. Moreover, value-based topics are listed as centered on the live core or the moral values, which are unlikely to change over time, causing ethical considerations over time, like giving out equity proportionately, as well as trust. On the other hand, Christian ethics based on biblical foundations give the correct view of bringing an appropriate response to an entire human being to bring revelation (World Health Organization 2020).

Current Policies

The policies (State or local level) that address the COVID-19 pandemic response:

The three policies that both State and local levels addressed during the COVID-19 pandemic response are as follows:

  • Maintaining at least six feet distance in a public place
  • Get vaccinated right on time
  • Wearing a face mask while visiting outdoor places.

The conflicting policies between the different levels of Government:

The different levels of Government:

  • The state involves initiating vaccines to boost the people so they can get relief from coronavirus.
  • Local Government involves giving out the significance of wearing a mask and maintaining social distancing.
  • The state government has developed a system to restrict traveling so that they can reduce the level of coronavirus expansion.
  • Local Government often involves pamphlets and social communications to develop the scenario of wearing masks where the nose and the face are covered to reduce the spread of coronavirus.  

The current policies solved, alleviated, exacerbated, or had no effect on the problem:

The policies involved the effects in solving the alleviated problems of COVID-19. The following actions mainly help to prevent the spread of COVID-19 and, in the case of coronavirus and H1N1 influenza. Likewise, therefore, the alleviated by wearing the face mask in outdoor spaces. Moreover, in case of maintaining at least six feet of distance reduces the risk of the spread of the virus.   

Summation and Conclusion

In order to conclude the primary fact that mainly dwells on the note states that COVID-19 is one of the infectious diseases caused by to virus that spreads through an infected person. This virus affects the respiratory droplets that infect the person’s brain tissue. Covid-19 affects the patient’s respiratory system, which often develops symptoms like coughing, chest pains, fever, and shortness of breath. The signs of this disease are mostly mild, although in some cases, it is severe. Yet, based on the state and local government, the nation is taking care to deal with the coronavirus. Thus, they are taking steps to develop the criteria and escape society from the effects of coronavirus. Therefore, wearing a mask while closing the mouth and nose shall help to prevent COVID-19 among people so that the general public can recover from coronavirus.     

Reference Page

Alahdal, H., Basingab, F., & Alotaibi, R. (2020). An analytical study on the awareness, attitude, and practice during the COVID-19 pandemic in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Journal of infection and public health, 13(10), 1446-1452.

He, F., Deng, Y., & Li, W. (2020). Coronavirus disease 2019: What we know? Journal of medical virology, 92(7), 719-725.

Jewel, T. (2020). Everything You Should Know About the 2019 Coronavirus and COVID-19. Retrieved from (Retrieved on December 8, 2022)

Kuang, J., Ashraf, S., Das, U., & Bicchieri, C. (2020). Awareness, risk perception, and stress during the COVID-19 pandemic in communities of Tamil Nadu, India. International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(19), 7177.

Labban, L., Thallaj, N., & Labban, A. (2020). Assessing the level of awareness and knowledge of COVID 19 pandemic among syrians. Archives of Medicine, 12(3), 0-0.

World Health Organization. (2020). Weekly Operational Update on COVID-19, 23 October

World Health Organization. (2021). Coronavirus. Retrieved from topics/coronavirus#tab=tab_1 (Retrieved on December 8, 2022)

Zu, Z. Y., Jiang, M. D., Xu, P. P., Chen, W., Ni, Q. Q., Lu, G. M., & Zhang, L. J. (2020).

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