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PHI 6808- Explain and evaluate Kant’s argument.

Aug 7, 2023

Write a 4-page, double-spaced paper on ONE of the following topics. You should not consult outside sources. Your answer to the prompt should be grounded in the text.  At the same time, do not overly rely on quotations. Never quote as a substitute for putting a point in your own words 

1. Up until §9, Kant has insisted that judgments of beauty are grounded in a (disinterested) feeling of pleasure. In §9 of the Critique of the Power of Judgment, however, Kant writes: “If the pleasure in the given object came first, and only its universal communicability were to be attributed in the judgment of taste to the representation of the object, then such a procedure would be self-contradictory” (5: 217). What does Kant mean by this? Is he contradicting his earlier claim? Why or why not?

2. Kant describes the mental state that grounds a judgment of beauty as that of the harmonious “free play” of the faculties of imagination and understanding (§9, 5:217). It’s not clear, however, what it means for the faculties to be in a state of “free play.” Compare Kant’s description of the relation of the faculties in cognition with the relation of the faculties in the experience of beauty. How do you understand the state of “free play”?

3. In §5, Kant clearly distinguishes judgments of beauty from judgments of moral goodness. Nevertheless, Kant goes on to draw a number of connections between beauty and morality. In §42, Kant claims that we have a moral interest in the beauty of nature. In §52, Kant claims that the beautiful arts should be “combined, whether closely or at a distance, with moral ideas, which alone carry with them a self-sufficient satisfaction,” otherwise the mind will become “dissatisfied with itself and moody” (5: 326). And finally, in §59, he claims that beauty is a “symbol of morality” (5:351). Picking one of these sections to focus on, explain what the relationship is between beauty and morality, for Kant.

4. In §38, Kant provides a “deduction” of pure judgments of taste, that is, a justification of the universal validity that is claimed in a judgment of taste. Explain and evaluate Kant’s argument.

5. According to Kant, beautiful works of art express aesthetic ideas (§49). How does Kant define an aesthetic idea? (What is the relationship between aesthetic ideas and ideas of reason? What are aesthetic attributes? Etc.) In answering this question, pick a work of art that you think expresses an aesthetic idea to use as your example to illustrate what Kant means.


4. In §38, Kant provides a “deduction” of pure judgments of taste, that is, a justification of the universal validity that is claimed in a judgment of taste. Explain and evaluate Kant’s argument.

The task done by Kant, in the “Deduction of judgment of taste”, mainly focuses on the judgment on the possible note with one’s own feelings of pleasure based on an object, and it is independently taken care of under the independent concepts, that would judge the pleasure on a priori. Therefore, without having the concurrence of others, as this attached the representation is based on the objection on a regular note under the subject. Kant appeals to parlance that supports and mainly claims on the judgment in order to speak and learn about speaking on “universal voice”. Thus, judgment is actually agreeable with an aesthetic judgment that claims a “subjective universal validity”. Thus, Kant gave a significant idea based on the theory of a flower, a poem, or any musical composition, which is likely to be a criterion that is unable to claim the “objective universal validity”, based on the judgment of taste. Moreover, Kant introduces the theory in order to make a free play based on the imagination while developing an understanding that actually causes pleasure that brings through beauty. Thus the subsequent “deduction”, based on the judgment of taste, mainly argues about what is shared by the nature of humans with human cognitive capabilities. Thus, free play can is actually introduced by Kant in order to give an explanation to learn about the expected judgemental tastes claiming to speak up with a Universal voice that is sustained.

Kant in the theory of Judgement mainly focuses on stating the significance of the complex conscious and the conditions that actually refer to the other objects which are direct and can be considered to be intuition, while in the case of indirect is that deals with the concepts that are required in giving out the judgments. Apart from this, the concepts mainly include the roles which are predicted to be the objects that are based on the constituent concepts that exemplify pure logical concepts. The entire §30–§54 mainly deals with the thesis where Kant makes a discussion about fine art and genius, which falls under “Deduction of Pure Aesthetic Judgement”, this is generally agreed to be an actual deduction that contained the various sections which often discuss the present life. Thus, Kant succeeds relatively on a modest note while introducing the task that he sets himself in various sections, and on the ground which is right to be demanded on the agreement regarding the judgment that shows about the subjective principles along with the judgment which is transcendentally grounded.

Therefore, while discussing the “Analytic of Beautiful”, Kant eventually discusses the “modality”, which is based on the judgment of taste. Thus, the modality of the judgment is mainly regarded to be an example under the universal rule which cannot be given. Therefore, one of the prominent hypotheses held by Kant is orated in the “Analytic of the Beautiful”, and the “Deduction of Pure Aesthetic Judgement”, which was probably introduced by the first draft that reflects the judgment. Thus, deduction seemed to be turned under the identification of the state of mind, under the necessity under the cognition with a sufficient pleasure of taste under the universal validity that is attributed to the latter.

Moreover, Kant introduces the aesthetics of judgment that mainly contains the material of purposiveness, as aesthetic judgment is mainly the reflection based on formal purposiveness. The mere subjective condition is likely to be judgemental which can permit as well as this can determine the concept based on judgment in order to determine the ground, in order to determine the feeling of pleasure to note the aesthetic judgment which is always reflection in nature. On the contrary, the presupposes are the representation of the faculties on the cognition that operates unity within the power of judgment under the aesthetic judgment sense, which is related to learning about the means of power and learning about its principles in order to learn about the feeling of pleasure. Therefore, the criterion mainly decides about the distinction based on the treatise that consists of claiming the distinction under the Universal validity and its necessity. Therefore, Kant claimed a justification of the universal validity that actually deprived of the theory judgment of taste. Thus, Kant gives a clarification that actually deals with the idea stating that the Judgement of taste, is based on the advance of experiences on the object which is pleasing. Therefore, the connection of pleasure, under the empirical thought out of pleasure is due to the harmony and imagination in order to understand and justify the expected pleasure. Thus, Kant’s distinction between the empirical is a priori, in the case of a judgment of taste which he actually prepared for clarification. Therefore, Kant makes a clarification stating his judgment of taste which does not expect agreement from the people to a certain degree as it is often regarded “as it were a duty”. There is a connection created between taste along morality that creates a connection in order to direct the undermining of freedom with imagination under the essence of beauty on an obvious didacticism.

Thus, the pleasure of the judgment of taste thereby depends on the empirical representation, which is associated with empirical representation which is nevertheless determined on the grounds of judgment underneath the virtue to make an awareness about the fact which determines on the reflection on a general note with a subjective condition that actually corresponds with the cognition with a general with an object of purposive. Alternatively, the judgment mainly takes up the subject based on the critique that is regarded on the possibilities that presuppose the principle on the cognitive principle in order to understand the practicality and to deal with the principles that are not prior to determining all. The judgment of taste mainly focuses on the cognitive judgment which is rather aesthetic and can be understood while determining on the grounds that cannot be subjective.

Eventually, based on the details, a judgment of taste is actually postulated except on the Universal voice that is regarded under the satisfaction with a mediation that links up with the concept of the possibilities and learning on the aesthetic judgment which could make something to be considered on a valid note. Therefore, Kant through the judgment of taste, Kant, mainly focuses on postulating the ascription to deal with the agreement to rule under the regarded expectations confirmation under the concepts with consent.

Having completed the analysis on the Analytic Beautiful, that is viewed on the effort that is uncovered with the condition under the circumstances based on the judgment in order to understand the taste, of the beauty and purity. Therefore, based on the position where Kant attempts on the ground with a normativity based on the judgment. Therefore, the task of Deduction as stated by Kant mainly dwells on the note with an Analytical focus that dealt with a Quid Juris, the question of the right, and the question about the fact, which is the Quid Facti. Kant’s discussion of Pure Aesthetic Judgment is generally agreed on the actual deduction contained in the sections that are often discussed. Apart from this, Kant generally based on the detailed idea, where the individual argues on the fact in order to succeed about the relativity to learn about the modest task that sets around the sections and the grounds of rights that is demanded on the agreement regarding the judgment that shows to derive with a subjective principle based on the judgment that has transcendentally grounded. As a result, relativity can be dealt with the idea that based on the applications that put a pure judgment taste. Since it turns, out to be the position that turns out to the position that determines the certainty of whether on giving Kant’s argument based on the section that expresses the entitled theory “Deduction of Judgment of Taste”, in the Critique of Judgment. Thus, evaluating on this note, Kant’s deduction is more fundamental based on the difficulty that offers the justification that held on the subjective details to be a formal condition under the judgment with a general state that is proportionate with atonement for being a harmonious play that is based on the cognitive faculties.  Thus, as per my analysis, I could state that Kant’s deduction does not achieve and declare the aim while providing the judgment of taste under the “legitimation of its pretension”. Thus, this can be concluded that deduction fails to prove the rights of the judgment of taste, with an explanation about the right. Thus Kant aims an animate the Critique of Judgment to learn about nature and scope to learn about the cognitive faculties based on nature and to learn about taste, with great disappointments. Although this thesis is merely hypothetical, that creates an alternative idea that equally discloses the possibilities of the judgment of taste, while Kant’s “Deduction”, is mainly placed like a burden of proof, which can rather disproof, or can even be rejected with his explanation.     


Kant, I. (2000). Critique of the Power of Judgment. Cambridge University Press.

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