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MGT 208- Project Management Assignment

Sep 15, 2023

Project management assignment

Imagine yourself as the CMO of one of the healthcare facilities run by UnitedHealth Group Inc. [Multinational Company]. During the COVID-19 pandemic, we all know how challenging it was to manage many such patients. Clearly, we need the global infrastructure to manage such pandemics. Present your market findings and propose a viable solution to increase your facility’s pandemic preparedness. You need to plan the whole project from the initiation to the completion phase.

Project management assignment

Introduction

The Covid pandemic has decimated the globe, putting civilization at risk in a way that has never been done before. In order to stop the pollution from spreading, testing is essential. It identifies and separates the infected, stopping additional transmission, helping with contact afterward, and enabling quick action or the right kind of therapy. Massive expansion obligatory testing is presently feasible, but every individual must make their own testing options. By the way, people commonly must wait a very long time at testing locations before receiving a test (Koch & Schermuly, 2021). This fundamental delay may deter people from seeking a test in the first place, especially if the test has sensitive or no unintended implications. Due to the high testing demand met by the Delta combination and the resolution of several prior testing issues, the screen things time for a test at a public testing facility in the US may eventually rely upon 3–4 hours.

The 20% of heresies that are commonly asymptomatic (before the vaccination spread) yet concurrently overwhelming are particularly challenging for Covid to manage. According to the socioeconomic class of the “Centers for Disease Control and Prevention” (CDC) model, people without discretionary effects account for the bulk of Covid transmission. Making certification shows that people can spread the disease whether they are beautiful or not since the viral load of asymptomatic Covid infection patients is the same as that of attractive patients. According to the most recent CDC research, which categorically establishes this, the virus load of individuals who received the Delta vaccination but were exposed to the contamination is comparable to that of individuals who have not received the vaccination. They would likely only experience mild incidental consequences. The CDC suggests assuming that a person is aware of the contamination and giving them the benefit of the doubt even if they don’t show any undesired symptoms. Therefore, regardless of whether one shows helper effects, it is vital to remember that anything that generates as many flaws as may be anticipated, given the testing findings.

Analysis

In November 2019, pneumonia in Wuhan City, Hubei District, China, was initially connected to the novel zoonotic coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. On January 9, 2020, the WHO noted that this specific coronavirus type is not frequently seen in people. On Walk 11, the WHO declared this to be a pandemic. The illness is quickly spreading throughout Europe, Asia, and North America, with examples already existing in a number of countries in Africa, the Middle East, and Latin America. The spread of heresy was further accelerated by persons defiling an extraordinarily large number of other people at gatherings known as “super-spreading occasions,” which affected many of the nations that were most actively affected.

Crowns are the spike proteins or S-proteins that stick out from the coronavirus surface and resemble crowns. The mucous cells of the nose, mouth, or eyes are the main entry points for SARS-CoV-2 into the patient’s body. Cells along the flight path (throat) were exposed to chemicals during pollution, which caused them to alter angiotensin and generate a receptor protein (ACE2) (Koch & Schermuly, 2021). To avoid contamination, the coronavirus spike protein acts as a “key” and the patient’s ACE2 receptor protein as a “lock and hold.” Furthermore, you must stop this trafficking if you want immunizations to be successful.

3,717,797 COVID-19 guaranteed events happened between November 31, 2019, and June 7, 2020, according to the proper case definition in the impacted countries, with 263,878 passings garnering worldwide notice. The table below lists the nations that have both domestically and internationally seen numerous SARS-CoV-2 contaminations.

Transmission

The primary SARS-CoV-2 transmission channels, which are well known, are illustrated in this section. It is important to highlight that COVID-19 has not yet been found in the initial viral “segment,” which is where each transmission course is anticipated to begin.

Four transmission characterization pathways are discernible:

1. Distinctive transmission

Smoulder sprayers used in close proximity to a person with the trademark cause direct spread. Chinese epidemiological data3 showed that family clusters accounted for up to 85%4 of human-to-human transmission.

Coughing or sneezing is the major technique. Even while acceptable SARS-CoV-2 contamination was detected in smolder sprayers at almost constant levels for three hours6, 7 after aerosolization, it is expected that the larger droplets carrying the sickness that is dispersed by coughing and wheezing will leave the air more quickly. Encounter with a COVID-19 patient who is in the communicable stage that can be tested for. Face-to-face interaction lasting more than 15 minutes with a sick person in the communicable stage within 1 meter of them8; talking can spread SARS-CoV-29-contaminated sprinkle hazes.

2. Transmission prior to symptoms:

Direct transmission from a sick person before the source individual unquestionably experiences negative effects. One to two and a half days before the COVID-19 unexpected consequences appear, dirty people, begin spreading the pollution (on average). Tragically, the fastest shift in viral weight and the most overwhelming period at that breaking point occur not long after the onset of the early symptoms. The average time interval is currently thought to be between 5 and 6 days, while there are certain outliers, such as thrilling events that may last up to 27 days (Koch & Schermuly, 2021).

It is easier to understand how this pandemic is evolving because of these characteristics. Pre-spellbinding transmission may be responsible for 10–45% of transmissions, according to quick analyses, albeit the small figures suggest that this transmission method has been underutilized. Many respiratory diseases, such as varicella (chickenpox), which is very contagious a few days before the latter less desirable transmissions, pre-spellbind pass from one person to another.

3. A new transmission without symptoms

Direct contact from individuals who, without doubt, have never inadvertently hurt another person might result in the transmission of the disease. The initial global spread of the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak from one side of the world to the other may depend on pre-fascinating and covert asymptomatic transmission. Despite thorough testing, it is still irrational to expect being able to distinguish between pre-brand name individuals and asymptomatic individuals at this social gathering. Asymptomatic individuals have furthermore (and skillfully) dealt with tiny unintended consequences like use or physical ache. Another unimportant overall SARS-CoV-2 testing framework estimate states that 40% of contaminations are mainly asymptomatic.

Expert testing is conducted prior to ceasing extensive development. It is not anticipated that this transmission pathway would be the cause of this pandemic given the low exceptional storage of such individuals. According to the most recent Chinese studies, 80% of SARS-CoV-2 contaminations are asymptomatic.

4. Biological transmission

Ecological spread is sparked by contact with infected objects, surfaces, and food. But this has been looked at in a more recent study. Sinks, toilets, and section handles are a few common signs of item defilement that might be reasonably predicted. It would have been fantastic if the muck had undergone thorough disinfection following regular cleaning, particularly in the main structure (albeit this is currently debatable). Long SARS-CoV 2 additional segments were put to the surfaces, and after 4 hours on copper, 24 hours on cardboard, 72 hours on plastic, and excellent steel, no detectable contamination was found. The SARS-CoV-2 confirmation period is reduced above 30°C. The interaction between this large amount of data and research-office conclusions, which may not accurately reflect actual situations, should be addressed. Ecological transmission could possibly play a role in this outbreak, but it is not its main source.

Design

The “FIFO, Prioritizing High Type, and Optimal Policy” strategies will be utilized to obstruct and stop the spread of COVID-19.

According to the “First In, First Out” (FIFO) asset value principle, it is desirable to use up recently acquired or transferred assets before selling them or getting rid of them. For accounting reasons, FIFO views an asset’s cost as a component of the income statement’s “Cost of Merchandise Sold (Machine gear-pieces)” line item.

Prioritization is the method used to rank the significance of possible improvements. Choosing which patients, initiatives, or highlights should be communicated with the partner is one of the next phases for prospective infection research studies.

Development

In the accompanying statistics, we demonstrate the appropriateness of the FIFO testing policy. When waiting-cost distributions are type-subordinate, it might be challenging to accidentally locate the optimal testing cost since there may be several instances of extremely far for both high- and low-type individuals. We focus primarily on the quantitative effects of testing costs on the F hit rate in that limit. The optimal testing cost T* is included in Figure 3’s testing demand for various waiting cost dispersions. Given Speculation 1, it is not unexpected that we find that FIFO testing has poor results for free testing. Given the outcome of our basic model, Figure 3’s conclusion—that the ideal testing cost sadly increases as testing demand increases- is likewise not surprising.

We provide concordance in the policy-related resources. In light of this, we go on to show how frequent open testing increases the effectiveness of the need policy.

Then, we statistically analyze the need and FIFO policies to the degree that the hit rate considers the intelligent representations of the concordance outcomes. In Figures 6a, 6b, and 6c, we particularly take F(0), F (T*), and P(0) into account for various testing requirements when Cl= 1 and when Ch= 1, 2, and 3 individually (Naz et al. 2022). Our findings show that giving high types preference over FIFO is better when the testing demand is sufficiently high and worse when the testing demand is at an intermediate level. The FIFO strategy may result in inadequate free testing, as seen in Figure 4. Furthermore, we observe that the need policy’s benefit over the FIFO approach increases as Ch increases. It gets more alluring to prioritize the high-type individuals over FIFO as they become upset.

Finally, a mathematical solution to the optimal scheduling method increases the hit rate for free testing. The best course of action for a range of waiting-for expenditure distributions is shown in Figure 5. The ideal approach described here expressly preserves the core idea that, when testing demand modifications, high-type (independently, low-type) people should be given more (individually, less) needs.

Testing

Significant advancements have been achieved in illustrative testing. Serological testing is already a service that involves blood tests to check for antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. These tests may identify those with the disease and those who intentionally or unintentionally helped someone else become infected with SARS-CoV-2 (Naz et al., 2022). These trials are connected to the massive epidemiological studies that have just started and may offer insight into the best ways for governments to control epidemics (Bushuyev et al., 2020). This is an issue when previous colds brought on by less harmful coronaviruses result in cross-responses, which provide erroneously positive findings. The answer to this issue is still being sought after.

Swift local testing’s quickly increasing presence needs to be considered carefully. COVID-19’s harsh season infection is distinguished from the antibodies that have been handed down to combat it by these tests. However, there are already doubts about their authenticity since they might make it more difficult to control the disease.

Pharmaceutical measures

Last but not least, success is joint when treating a pharmaceutical response, regardless of shape or makeup. Remdesivir, an investigational antiviral drug, has successfully treated the deadly COVID-19 virus, and it is increasingly probable that other (antiviral) drugs will be kept on hand in the coming months. Similar to how quickly immunization research is progressing. In any event, this is only getting started.

Implementation

1. Transportation of patients

In a perfect world, ambulances would only ever be used to transport COVID-19 suspect patients or those who have been implicated to the hospitals. Ambulances currently come in two varieties: BLS and ALS (with ventilators) and (without ventilators). States may designate ambulances with the bare minimum of BLS-compatible gear for usage with COVID patients (Bushuyev et al. 2020). However, you must strictly follow the cleaning and disinfection guidelines in this warning statement. The oceanic power selected by the CMO/CS will monitor its observance.

Call centers will attempt to assess the patient’s health as soon as they get the call, and if required, they will dispatch ALS, BLS, or other carefully selected ambulances. Assuming no one truly objections, ensure that no other patients are ever carried in 102 ambulances, only pregnant women and infants with impairments. The operators of crisis vehicles should get training on typical COVID-19 symptoms from subject matter specialists (fever, hack, and inconvenience in breathing). Additionally, they should engage in regular infection prevention, balancing, and control actions, including wearing personal “protective equipment” (PPE). The EMT and crisis vehicle driver shall both be wearing PPE when handling, managing, and transporting COVID-19-distinguished/suspicious patients. For proper PPE usage, the well-being staff at the receiving wellness office is in charge. Both the patient and the expert should wear gloves and a triple-layer cover. Everyone should adhere to simple, general health suggestions like hand washing, behavior-handling breathing methods, and so forth. 

2. Call Centre:

The caller enquired about the following information after receiving the call:

  1. a) Give detailed information on the patient, such as name, age, location, and so on.
  2. b) To ascertain whether the patient is a suspected COVID-19 case.
  3. Symptoms of the patient: Find out what they are if the patient has a fever, a cough, or problems breathing.
  4. Whether the patient has actually traveled overseas and returned.
  5. The neighborhood health administration’s assessment of the patient’s home quarantine status
  6. The patient’s clinical status, such as whether it is stable or critical.

    3. Inter-office move

    The primary clinical authority of the referral crisis clinic must confirm that a bed and any other essential equipment are on hand at the reference crisis clinic before making the call in the case of an inter-office relocation.

    3.1 As instructed in the box above, assign the duty to the nearest emergency vehicle with a decent office in the strategic places.

    3.1.1 Verify the crisis vehicle’s degree of readiness.

    3.1.2 Outfit crisis vehicles with PPE that reassures crew.

    3.2 A current list of crisis centers and available beds must be maintained by all parties.

    3.3 After responding to the call from the call area, the EMT will carry out the procedures before transporting the patient:

    3.3.1 To ascertain if the patient is a COVID-suspected case, the EMT will investigate the nuances previously described. 19. 3.3.2 The EMT will wear the appropriate PPE.

    3.3.3 The EMT will assess the patient’s state of health.

    3.3.4 If a patient is wandering but stable, they can always be brought closer to the crisis vehicle. While wearing the advised PPE, the EMT may help load patients.

    3.3.5 Only one parent or guardian should be allowed to accompany the patient (while using the suggested PPE).

    3.3.6 Aside from that, the EMT should make sure that the proper triple-layered gloves and coverings are accessible, being worn, and safeguarding the patient’s surroundings.

    3.3.7 Both the patient and the carer will have access to a triple-layer clinical cover.

    3.3.8 The EMT will make contact with the renowned wellness office to inquire about its readiness.

    4. management participation         

    4.1 Verify that the patient’s vital signs are steady by checking them.

    4.1.1 Whenever necessary, give a strengthening O2 treatment at a rate of 5 L/min. Continue doing this until the objective SpO2 is attained, which is 90%.

    4.1.2 Provided the EMT has acquired the necessary training or help from a trained professional, adhere to the pioneers’ examples when information is being transferred from a lower fixation to a higher fixation.

    5. delivering the patient

    5.1 When the patient arrives at the receiving crisis clinic, the EMT will provide the patient and any information on clinical therapies that were delivered during transport. As soon as the patient is turned over, as demonstrated, the PPEs will be taken off, and the hands will then be cleansed. Use a water-cleaning solution or an alcohol-based massage to achieve clean hands.

    5.2 When disposing of transferred biological waste in a bio-danger facility, PPE must be worn (yellow pack). The sodium hypochlorite (1%), which was utilized within, will be sprinkled on the outside after tying. Once they arrived at the crisis center, they would make a choice. After that, do extra hand washing.

    6. cleaning the ambulance

    6.1 All surfaces that might have interacted with the patient or materials contaminated during patient idea (e.g., bunk, rails, control sheets, floors, walls, and work surfaces) ought to be completely cleaned and disinfected using a 1% Sodium Hypochlorite game plan.

    6.2 Clean and disinfect reusable patient-care hardware before use on one more understanding with liquor-based rub.

    6.3 Cleaning of all surfaces and hardware ought to be finished morning, evening, and after each utilization with cleaning well-informed authority/cleaning trained proficient and water.

    7. Increasing capacity

    The following elements of EMT and driver construction are areas in which local experts are more informed than the typical person:

    7.1 Putting on and taking off PPE

    7.2 Sorting and categorizing COVID-19 suspects based on their symptoms and adverse effects is one of the infection balances discussed in this guidance.

    7.3 Emergency personnel at healthcare facilities should get comparable training in patient heads, separation, and removal. They shouldn’t be mixed in with other patients.

    8. Tracking

    A schedule for the district surgeon and anesthetist to follow each week.

    References

    Koch, J., & Schermuly, C. C. (2021). Managing the Crisis: How COVID‐19 Demands Interact with Agile Project Management in Predicting Employee Exhaustion. British Journal of Management, 32(4), 1265-1283. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8551.12536

    Bushuyev, S., Bushuiev, D., & Bushuieva, V. (2020). Project management during Infodemic of the COVID-19 Pandemic. Innovative Technologies and Scientific Solutions for Industries, (2 (12)), 13-21. https://doi.org/10.30837/2522-9818.2020.12.013

    Naz, F., Kumar, A., Majumdar, A., & Agrawal, R. (2022). Is artificial intelligence an enabler of supply chain resiliency post-COVID-19? An exploratory state-of-the-art review for future research. Operations Management Research, 15(1), 378-398. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJPPM-12-2020-0676

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