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HIS 221- U.S. Labor and Work Before the End of Reconstruction: Paper Assignment 1

Aug 3, 2023

U.S. Labor and Work Before the End of Reconstruction
Paper Assignment 1: Instructions
The European colonization of New Netherland (which later became the provinces of New York and New Jersey) was marked by an extensive demand for labor.  What major economic factors contributed to the development of slavery in these provinces from the 1600s to mid-1700s? What roles did politics, laws, and religion play in strengthening slavery as a labor system?  What were the effects on slaves?
Write a 4 to 5-page, double-spaced paper in a 12-point font that addresses the questions posed above.

Paper Assignment 1

Establishing slavery in New Netherland

The European colonization of New Netherlands is marked to be an extensive demand for labor because of the Dutch colonization. The New Netherlands was controlled by the Hudson River Valley from the time 1609 to 1664. Thus, in this short span, the Dutch entrepreneurs developed the New Netherlands, starting from the forts up and down the Hudson River that laid the groundwork for the towns that still exist. Therefore, this area extended to the Dutch colony in North America. Therefore, this was later extended from Albany, New York, in the north to Delaware. The overall concept of this paper is to make an analysis of the law and the legal regulations based on introducing slavery. Moreover, this paper mainly reflects on the fact that slave trading was legal in New Netherland in order to bring profit to establish the Dutch West Indian Company. Previously, the colonists originally used the Native Americans to be the slaves, later they turned towards the Africans to form the slaves, as the colonists did not ever think about setting the lives of their slaves to be free. Perhaps, this paper consists of the idea stating about the government and the religion, that always strengthen the labor system.
The findings of this paper mainly focus on how the colonists used to be harsh with the slaves. The goals of both the French and the Dutch mainly revolved around establishing the slave trade because they wanted to gain more profit with hard-working slaves. Therefore, until the year 1621, the European settlement remained an abstraction in order to compete with the investors who vied with the monopoly based on the rights of Amsterdam (Hodges 1997). Hence, this gave rise to the Dutch West India Company which secured a contract under the settlement on the Hudson River. Therefore, the Dutch claimed the regions from the year 1615, which is a part of New Netherlands. On the other hand, in the case of the ten thousand colonists that have settled in the New Netherlands moved north and south to the Monmouth Country, within New Amsterdam, or through the strategic waterways of the lower Hudson. Therefore, in the case of the Long Islanders who came across the area over a period of forty years under Dutch rule. Apart from this, in case of small agricultural communities are basically characterized by the county’s early development. Apart from this, the slave-trading methods took place in Monmouth residents that mainly had a resident exempted from the Law of New Jersey. Therefore, the government rule and the church even followed the system for slavery, to the Africans and the Native people.
Plenty of slaves were brought to work for the company, for their economic development. The slaves had to work for the company like those were not done by others, the slaves were supposed to do all the work, with a tight time schedule. Moreover, slaves were associated with working on large projects of the Dutch West Indian Company. Apart from this, Native Americans were also considered to be slaves, they even had to do the same. While the African people were sold to the Dutch slavers based in the rival nations. Throughout the 17th century, this was predicted that all the European settlers of North America, have been turned enslaved based on the Africans based on a cheaper rate, with more plentiful labor forces with indentured servants. Throughout the 17th century, people from the continent of Africa was kidnapped, and they were forced to be a slave in the American colonies, along with the Dutch nations. Studies say that the Dutch West Indian Company, mainly associated with long protects, was done by the slaves, like establishing the roads, developing bridges, or even collecting grains. Many of the slaves used to die as they did not get proper time for their meal, due to the rigid duration of their working hours.
Slaves were entrapped in order to serve the works done under the Dutch West Indian Company. As stated by Hodges (1997), slavery has been considered one of the most significant changes which were terrible for most of the people in Africa. Initially reports stated that slaves were treated fairly well, but as time passed by, they received very poor treatment. However, this was considered to be a starting point based on slavery which started in the year 1619, with a privateer White Lion that brought African slaves ashore to the British colonies. Thus, this crew seized the Africans from Portuguese slaves with the ship named Sao Jai Bautista. The slaves were trapped, and they had to lead horrific life. Being a slave was a nightmare for the Africans because they had to face severe conditions depending on the threats and horrific treatment which was given to them by their masters mercilessly.
Later in the 1720s, New Jersey ran short of cheap labor, as the laborers did not want to work for the farmers so that they could harvest the crops, as most of the citizens had been moving in order to get their lands to be cultivated. Therefore, selling slaves in New Jersey was regarded as the secondary market for all the slaves. Thus, in the case of the economic factors that have been contributed based on the development of slavery in several provinces from the 1600s and the 1700s, stands on the global rate to learn about the significance of the African External Trade services. Thus, several places, like the New Netherlands, were mainly based on developing their nation, so that they could continue their work with the slaves.
Moreover, till the time, 1744, New Netherlands established the factor in order to incorporate the slave trade, while New Netherlands also developed its government to facilitate slaves so this became one of the legal trade processes in order to get cheap labor, within the hard work atmosphere. While some scholars have established the criteria based on being detrimental to African development, that eventually determined the various factors required for the development of America. Therefore, based on the role that was played by the European colony was based on determining the factors while making the development of the Americans. Therefore, these articles have contributed in order to the debate about the estimated value that has been added to the Triangular Trade and America plantation complex. Empirical studies have mentioned that the case based on the British connections was actually enslaved by the African slave trade while developing the American plantation with a complexity that took place during the 18th century. Therefore, this has been estimated that suggestions made on the trading system are more likely to give a horrific life to all the slaves who are kidnapped from Africa in order to bring a beneficial economic structure, while this has helped the Europeans as well as the Americans to develop their business insight.
The role of the government in New Netherland declared about developing an open slave trade system so that they could be deprived of the law and the legal regulations so that the slaves could arrive in a single line. According to Hodges (2005), the article mentioned the Negro who was entrapped as a slave. This was quantified on a substantial note to learn about the economic activities in terms of value that is added to a generation. Perhaps limited efforts were made to reduce the significance of the colonies and learn about the Slave Trade, which is most important based on David Eltis and Stanley Engeram, which estimated the value which is added to the involvement in learning about the British troops in the Caribbean Island. The scope is to make an analysis that can broaden that include commodities based on the value chain. Based on the estimation to have compared the estimated GDP on a whole British economy. Alternatively, the law which simply made the slaves the lowest-paid workers, in the social class, granted them no power. Comparatively, the law stood against the black citizens in New Jersey.
Politics played another horrific outlook towards slavery, as this led the life of the slaves to turn out to be more difficult, as compared to what they used to face before. Slavery rose as one of the political issues based on the nation, under the Indiana politics that electorate the belief of slavery. Apart from this, politicians have developed criteria stating that slavery is required to be freed of their position and shall have the liberty to go to their native places, and shall get proper living standards without the merciless pain. Later the Constitution was deprived of protecting slavery by increasing the political representation of the slave owners and the slave states, in order to stop the Slave Trade. Hence, legal angels helped to limit, the stringently through a temporary, Congressional power that regulated the Internal Slave Trade while protecting the rights of the slaves, so that the slaves could get liberty. In this context, religion plays one of the significant roles based on driving the forces of slavery in America and the different European nations.
Religion acted like a driving control based on slavery in the Americas and Europe. Religion played an iconic role that even strengthened the slave system, in New Netherland. Yet, the churches and the masters wanted to baptize their slaves. Religion was mainly deprived to keep the slaves religious so that they could not revolt against their masters. Therefore, few missionaries actually worked during the early years. As a result, a religion based on slavery got a new chance in order to make a moneymaking venture by taking Africans away from their home to put them into merciless work. Thus, this even took forward to put a subversive idea which is as hard to justify the painful treatment given to the slaves. Thus, Christianity, tried to mitigate those pain, while converting the people right away. Christianity stumbled up to baptize the slaves so that they remained the property of their masters, with the name of the religion. As compared to this, in the case of the Anglican denominations that supported the conversion of the African slaves into Christians. Despite getting the opportunity, the slaves tried to escape with the name of religion, and then the churches of the new Netherlands decided to stop baptizing the slaves so that they could not escape the place and stay with their master. Apparently, the slaves were so frantic to obtain freedom from their present situation either for themselves or for their children, but it was an impossible task for the slaves to obtain freedom.
On the other hand, involvement of the law, despite the political implantation made the lives of the slaves to be difficult. As new laws came up which made the lives of the slaves miserable, because most of the masters from the company, did not want to lose any of their slaves and gifted them to live a harsh life. Thus, new rules and regulations were developed for the slaves because Lewis Morris was slain by his slaves. Thus, the law which was established after killing a white mainly focused on hanging the slaves or giving them capital punishment under the law.
While concluding this paper I would like to mention the pros and cons depend on establishing slavery in New Netherlands. The involvement of the Dutch in the Atlantic Slave Trade was covered by the time between the 17th to 19th centuries. Initially, I could recognize how slavery was not that ill-treated, and the slaves even got fair treatment, with hospital facilities and later life. Later on, with the implementation of politics, law, government, and the influence of religion, it was difficult for the slaves to survive. Thus, legal regulations were very harsh for the slaves because they faced difficulties, that caused them to fall victim to ace capital punishment. Therefore, the size of the Atlantic Slave Trade took a dramatic transformation based on the African societies, as New Netherland was deprived of an open Slave Trade market. Thus, bringing slaves from Africa had a very bad impact on the African societies, leading to impoverishment in West Africa. Hence, those who tried to escape got merciless punishment from their master or were hanged to death.


Hodges, G. R. (1997). Slavery and Freedom in the Rural North: African Americans in Monmouth County, New Jersey, 1665-1865. Rowman & Littlefield.
Hodges, G. R. G. (2005). Root and Branch: African Americans in New York and East Jersey, 1613-1863. Univ of North Carolina Press.

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