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GOVT 461- Research Paper Assignment

Aug 18, 2023

    Instructions for Research Paper Outline

    In the first phase of the class semester project, students will submit a 2-page (~500 words) “concept paper” where they will identify and explain the following:

    • Identify what aspect of state national security policy and law they would like to research.
    • Explain how this research topic is relevant to course material and content.
    • Present primary research questions that the semester research projectile be examining or “answer”.
    • Justify the selection of this research topic (Why it is important to study).
    • Present a thesis statement (the “bottom line” of what you intend to discuss).
    • A preliminary list of five scholarly sources that have been identified on the subject matter.

    Research Paper outline

    Critical evaluation of the challenges faced by defense policies in the US after 9/11


    This can be administered that previously the United States was not that prepared with its defense ministry so they can protect themselves from the terror attack which was made on them on September 2001 by the terrorist troop called as Al-Qaeda. Hence, to bring peace into the country, after the terror attack, George Bush takes up the National law and policy within 45 days, to bring peace within the nation. Therefore, the United States Patriot Act, actually talks about the deterrence and the punishment given to the terrorists, to bring peace within the nation. This also acts as determining to prevent terrorism from the nation. Thus, the Nation is required to gain the policy to ensure and mitigate any further challenges related to terror attacks. This essay mainly deals with evaluating the challenges which are faced by the defense system of the United States. Hence, proper measures are required to be enrolled to mitigate further challenges faced by the defense department so that innocent people can be rescued from the arising situation (Katulis & Juul, 2021). Thus, a terror attack is likely to be a glimpse of a shock to the innocent people of the United States. Moreover, the 9/11 attack by the terrorist team of Osama Bin Laden was like a shock to the innocent people of the United States that killed the Americans. Moreover, the challenges that were faced by the United States, were to remove the bomb attack or any other terror attack within the Nation.

    Thesis Statement:

    Evaluating the challenges faced by the defense policies in the United States after 9/11.

    Background of the Study

    September 11, 2001, is recognized to be one of the days that shocked Americans, as they can never even forget about it. Thus, the American Defense Department, if they would have settled themselves then the total count of the people who were killed could have been reduced, and they could have encountered the terrorist with easy handling. Thus, this could have even helped the World Trade Center prevent destruction. Statistical data denotes the fact which states that more than 2,977 people were been killed due to this terror attack. Hence, the largest death rate rolled up to attack the Americans, apart from this, the debris out from the bomb attack on the World Trade Center even killed several people walking on the road locally. Thus, later American defense related to mitigating the terror attacks with NATO allies with U.N. Security Council that can respond with swiftness and learn about the ingenuity to protect the citizens on an immediate basis to mitigate the aftermath and learn about the further challenges taking place due to terror attacks (, 2018). Thus, after the attack of 9/11 United States created a new Institution that includes the Department of Homeland Security, the Directorate of National Intelligence, and the National Counterterrorism Center. Hence, this has helped in improving the Intelligence techniques and laws to enforce the agencies to prevent terrorism or any further attacks to provide National Security. Moreover, the United States is more secure these days because they have increased the safety of the people within the nation.      

    Literature Review

    The factors that lead to the development of this terror attack in America were mainly related to religious discrimination which is often done by United States nationals towards other nationalities. Hence, this attack was from the Islamic extremist who has developed a motif that America often underestimate their value. Apart from this, the Islamic extremist felt that they were being provoked by War from the United States. As this catered to create an impact within the society killing the innocent people of America that extended due to geopolitics involved within the society and culture to be in general. Hence, immediate responses leading to 9/11 mainly included the influence of greater focus on home life along with the time that is spent by the Islamic people, the church attender with increasing patriotism that has need flying the flags of America. Thus, this is the reason the Islamic terrorist troupe of Osama Bin Laden without any prior information and have attacked Flight 11 which crashed the floor into 93 to 99, while killing innocent people who were not involved in any discrimination that deprived the suicide terrorism. Thus, this terror attack destroyed the World Trade Center that was destroyed because of the caused damages sustained by the fall of the Twin Towers. Later to encounter terror attacks, the American government implemented different systems to give benefit society. As a result after 9/11, America did not encounter any attack, while they have taken proper defense systems to create various institutions to evaluate the challenges which they often face to create a proper intention to prevent terrorism.  Thus, this includes the Department of Homeland Security, the introduction of the Directorate of National Intelligence, and the National Counterterrorism Center to act against any further challenges they face due to terror attacks. The defense system is so improved nowadays that this has helped to improve National Security against Terrorist suicides (Katulis & Juul, 2021).  

    Research Rationale

    Additionally, the research is made to evaluate how the United States government is taking up steps to mitigate its challenges to defend against any further terror attacks. Hence, the reason for the research is related to learning about the challenges that are faced by the Department of Defense in the United States. Hence, immediately after this suicide attack from the terrorists American government implemented the Patriotic Act to learn about the Intelligence techniques to learn about any further attacks from terrorism. Hence, this research is mainly made to evaluate how America rapidly changed the military system of the new militaries and defense department which is implemented with intelligence to learn about the capabilities to help thwart the plots and plan to track down the terrorist attacks (, 2018). While these created an operative cause for the leaders to notably led by Osama Bin Laden by the year 2011. Hence, the United States sustainably enhancing its capabilities so that it can track terror attacks and learn about its finance network. Thus, to mitigate the former challenge which was faced by them due to cybercrime, are often addressed by the cyber realm to provide a redefined national security while implementing technologies. Hence, the U.S. military and intelligence agencies have created a counterterrorism partnership across the globe, while developing a joint effort so that they can be helped prevent terror attacks. As noted by the United States Defense Department and military agencies trace terror attacks across the globe to track Islamic nations, with the help of the National Intelligence and National Counterterrorism Center of the United States.          

    Identifying the aspect of state national security policy

    The American defense, police department, navy, or the World Trade Centre shall never forget September 11, 2001, based on the New York Financial Center, the headquarters at Pentagon, and its civilian air transportation system. On the other, later after the terror attack of 9/11, the United States National Security policy developed itself from 2001 to 2021 so that it can mitigate future terror attacks within the nation.

    • National Security policy and law were developed to improve in order to make synchronization with tremendous diplomatic, military, and security to support America’s foreign policy.
    • Americans realized that they required a good attune related to their military force so that they can mitigate all the attacks done to them. Along with developing economic assistance within the local realities (Katulis & Juul, 2021).
    • To learn about any corruption based on the U.S. operations which undermine the effectiveness and develop credibility.
    • Giving training to all the armed forces along with the defense forces, so that the American military can create an involvement that can develop a conflict so that they can mitigate their planning to raise themselves for any future attacks.

    Significance of the research relevance with course

    The relevance of this research is mainly based on details ideas so that the research is mainly made to understand how to challenges which are faced by the defense ministry or the naval department, as they faced trouble because they did not have any understanding about its horrific nature which killed numerous innocent American (Katulis & Juul, 2021).

    Research Questions

    How to mitigate the challenges faced by the defense system of the United States after the terror attack of 9/11?

    Justifying the selection of this research topic

    The justification of this research paper is based on analyzing the terror attack and how it is horrific. Therefore, this paper would disclose the pros and cons related to the National Security policy so that they can understand the future attack made by any terror group and crises arouses due to foreign policy. Thus, the national security policy measures, are based on acknowledging the ideas to notice the fact how the difficulties can be mitigated, which were faced by the defense policies after the attack of 9/11.  


    This can be concluded that the involvement of modern technologies and intelligence in America is developing support to bring forth national security against any terror attack. As a result this essay mainly focuses on creating an effort that creates a multiple line to discover proper military support, so that the United States can take up the challenge to mitigate and stand with force to develop a new military to learn the plan and plot of terror attacks while creating institutions to defend terrorism. One of the complicated situations took place in the United States with the terror attack of 9/11. Thus, for this reason, military force is developed so that they can develop themselves to encounter any attack oriented likewise the terror attack which took place on 9/11. Therefore, the implementation of proper governance within the United Nations, which was later responded to by NATO to learn about the aircraft patrol so that most of the time the terror attacks could be mitigated the challenges faced by the defense department after the terrorist attack.  


    The lessons learned for U.s. national security policy in the 20 years since 9/11. (2021, September 10). Center for American Progress. [Retrieved on April 28, 2022] (2006). National Commission on terrorist attacks upon the United States: Hearing before the select committee on homeland security, House of Representatives, O. [Retrieved on May 2, 2022] (2018, August 25). September 11 attacks. HISTORY. [Retrieved on April 30, 2022]

    Katulis, B.& Juul, P. (2021, September 10). The Lessons Learned for U.S. National Security Policy in the 20 Years Since 9/11. Retrieved from [Retrieved on 13th April, 2022]

    911Memorial.Org. (2021). 9/11 FAQs. Retrieved May 3, 2022, from [Retrieved on May 1, 2022] (2021). What caused 9/11 — and the consequences that linger. Ohio State Insights. Retrieved from[Retrieved on April 27, 2022]

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