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BIO 290- Week 5 Discussion

Aug 4, 2023


Briefly discuss the movement pattern during swimming.


The movement patterns during swimming were what I had been interested in since childhood. Swimming has a complex undulating movement of the body, and the movement of hands and legs needs to be in proper synchronization to stay above water and propel forward or backward. There are four types of movement patterns used while swimming that is breaststroke, freestyle, backstroke, and butterfly. Each movement pattern while swimming involves the use of the cardiovascular system, muscles, and joints.

Muscles from head to toe are used in the standard strokes of swimming. The pectorals, deltoids, biceps, triceps, and wrist flexors form the upper body muscles that are utilized for swimming.

In swimming irrespective of the movement patterns, the generalized muscles that are used are the upper body muscles such as pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi, biceps, triceps, deltoids, and brachioradialis are used. The leg muscles used are the glutes, quads, and calf muscles. The obliques are used while twisting the body while swimming. A rotator cuff is used while rotating the arms. Hamstrings also contribute to a wide variety of movements while swimming. Core muscles keep the body in a streamlined position. Forearm muscles are used to pull the water for better forward movement. Upper back muscles provide stabilization of the shoulders while swimming.

The elbow and the radioulnar joints are quite frequently used during swimming. Ball and socket joints are also very vital while swimming. The lower body primarily moves with the help of the joints of the subtalar and talocrural joints. Flexing is one of the key movements that occur while swimming, so the appropriate use of hip joints is very important to avoid injuries. The proper coordination of the upper and lower body parts are very crucial to executing appropriate swimming strokes (Björk, 2018, p.14).


Björk, J. (2018). Upper-& lower body strength and its correlation to performance in swimming.

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