In 1000 words, write an essay in which you compare and contrast the styles and functions of the buildings according to each civilization. Discuss significant features of the religious, social, and political hierarchy of each civilization. Discuss the function of the buildings according to their plans. Apply new terms from the architectural diagrams in each chapter. Utilize APA formatting and citations.
Over the past eight (8) weeks, you have been exposed to many articles on civility and changing media in society.
Select three (3) topics that have been covered in this course and locate one (1) article (different from any articles provided in this course) for each topic (i.e., global civility, civility in the workplace, etc.).
- Provide an overview for each article. Include the main “takeaways” you have from reading the article.
- Compare your article to an article provided in our class and discuss at least one (1) similarity and one (1) difference.
Your paper should be 3-4 pages and follow proper APA formatting. A minimum of three (3) resources are required and should be cited in-text and listed on a properly-formatted reference page
The Temple of Amun at Karnak was fully formulated in 1550 BCE and lasted till 1070 BCE. It was a product of Greek Civilisation. It is built of Red Granite stone. The stylistic period it belongs to is Classic Greece.
The temple served as the primary worshipping location of the god Amun-Re. Along with Amun-Re other divine figures worshipped in the temple were Montu and Mut. The temple is constituted of two axes. The southern axis of the temple directs towards Luxor Temple. The connection for this structure was the figurines of ram-headed sphinxes. The original construction had an obelisk (Ragab, 2021, p.200). The obelisk was taken away by Roman Emperor Constantine. The Emperor eventually erected it in Rome, separately. The architectural marvel in this construction is its Hypostyle Hall. Even to this date, it is one of the largest Religious Complexes conceived in the world. The temples were created to symbolize the beginning of creation. The material Granite applied in the Temple was used to signify the mound of creation emerging out of primeval waters. In comparison to other architectural remains from Classic Greece, the level of preservation applied in the temple is unsatisfactory. Though even without the preservation the structure remains one of the biggest storehouses of knowledge from the Ancient Greece period. The prominence of the Temple was enhanced when prominence was placed on the city of Thebes (Magli, 2018, p.35). Henceforth every Pharaoh began to incorporate his impact on the structure. The temples functioned as a place of work for priest communities. Therefore the architecture had amenities like a kitchen, lake, and workshops. It also produced Religious accouterments. This aspect reveals the growing prominence of priests in the economic infrastructure of the country. Religion has always had a huge impact on the social state of the country, but buildings like the Temple of Amun prove that it was also a great economic avenue. The funding provided both by Royalty and devotees created a ‘company’ of priests. Hence after Thebes began to grow in impact, such Temple structures also gained a lot of momentum economically. The population of Thebes saw their Economic fortunes grow considerably and therefore the authorities wasted no time in providing them with a place to donate some of their finances. The prosperity unfortunately did not last forever, and in Ancient Times it was plundered for its valuable stones. Through the plundering, some vast complexes sufficed. Porta Augusta was built in the second half of the 3rd Century BC. After going into devastation it was preserved by Emperor Augustus. This architecture was an outcome of Greek Civilisation. It is composed of stones. The stylistic period it belongs to is Classic Greece.
The structure was made to foray into the ‘cardo maximum of the city. The structure is one of the two surviving architectural gates alongside Porta Marzia placed in the South. It was preserved by Augustus to celebrate his victory in the legendary Perusine War. Similar to Temple Of Amun this structure also has a relationship with Royalty. Both structures were primarily built or preserved to reflect prosperity. It is very typical of Greek civilization, where Royalty to celebrate their supremacy tried to attach themselves to divine figures. The best element of this architecture is the arch. The arch’s constituents include an archway as well as two trapezoidal towers. It also had two bronze pillars that were free-form structures (Timár, 2019, p.80). The structure represented a gateway to all the prosperity Augustus brought to the Greek civilization. Through such magnificent architecture, the rulers tended to showcase the superiority of their civilization. It was also a manner in which they wanted to leave their mark on history.
The First Temple in Jerusalem was structured in 957 BC. It was built during the Egyptian Stylistic Period. It was constructed by King Solomon. The temple is made of a variety of stones like dolomitic limestone, pale limestone, and dolomite. These stones together are named Jerusalem Stone. The walls of the temple are lined with cedar and the floor is laden with precious gold (Valenti, & Paternò, 2021, p.206). By the Bible, the temple stood for almost four centuries. Its destruction was brought about by the Neo-Babylonian Empire under the second Babylonian king, Nebuchadnezzar II. The temple was destroyed because the King had announced the exile of Judeans to Babylon. Like the previous two architectural specimens, the royalty built this structure. All three specimens were built to reflect the prosperity of their maker. Till the time the prosperity of the place persevered, the structure remained glorious. Such structures that are built by Royalties also heavily depend on the progress of the locale they are situated in. Religion is a great way of inculcating unison. Fortunate and well-off people are more likely to invest hugely in religious endeavors. Hence flourishing places have more well-maintained places of worship. The moment the Greek and Jerusalem civilization fell, these structures also deteriorated, in the earlier two cases they were plundered by the incoming threats, and Solomon’s Temple straightaway disappeared (Shapira, 2018, p.40).
Hagia Sophia was built in 537 AD. It is a part of Byzantine Civilisation. According to the year of its construction, it belongs to Byzantine Period. The beautiful structure was formulated by the Roman emperor Justinian I. It was built to function as the patriarchal cathedral of the capital Constantinople and represent the state church of Romans. It was primarily made of fireproof materials. The fire burnt stones were inculcated into the mortar. Hence combining hard materials with soft and flexible elements.
The construction sufficed through many changes. The biggest change came when it was converted into a mosque. The Republic Of Turkey decided to transform it into a museum. During the time of its construction, Hagia Sophia had the world’s largest interior space. It is said to be a specimen that transformed the world of architecture. Thousand years after its construction, Hagia Sophia remained the world’s largest cathedral (Jamaleddine, 2020, p.50). It has a domed roof, 180 feet above the ground. The style of the Cathedral is said to be a Christian basilica. After the events of the Fall of Constantinople, the cathedral was converted into a Mosque. This shows the prominence that the majority religion held in society. Though the city is no longer as prosperous as it was the cathedral through public efforts and funds from the Church has been maintained. After getting conquered by the Ottoman Empire, the Cathedral was looted of its bells, altar, and relics. In 1935 it was reopened as a museum. Recently in 2020, it was again established as a mosque. The place showcases the interrelation between social order and religion. Since Islam is the authoritarian religion in Turkey at this point, therefore that religion is dominating Hagia Sophia.
All the monuments showcase that the main purpose behind the Royalty investing in them is to secure their image of superiority over the common folks. Common folks consider religion to be the driving force in their real lives and therefore are comfortable in granting authority to a person associated with their religion. Hence, the state or condition of authority plays a huge role in the present circumstance of the monument. If the authority falls from power then automatically the monuments go into oblivion. Since the new authorities want to emphasize their principle and values, differing from their predecessors.
Ragab, M. R. (2021). Transformation of a Sacred Landscape: Veneration of Amun-Re in Graffiti in the Valley of the Kings. The Journal of Egyptian Archaeology, 107(1-2), 191-205.
Magli, G. (2018). Architecture, Astronomy, and Sacred Space: The Case of the Avenue of the Sphinxes. In Sustainable Conservation and Urban Regeneration (pp. 33-39). Springer, Cham.
Timár, L. (2019). The visual program behind the Roman architectural depictions on coins. Acta Numismatica Hungarica, 73-82.
Valenti, R., & Paternò, E. (2021). Imagined Spaces in Church Architectural Furnishings: Solomon’s Temple in Small-Scale Architectural Language. In Advances in Utopian Studies and Sacred Architecture (pp. 203-213). Springer, Cham.
Shapira, D. (2018). The Moza Temple and Solomon’s Temple. Bibliotheca Orientalis, 75(1-2), 25-48.
Jamaleddine, Z. (2020). Hagia Sophia Past and Future. Places Journal.