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ANTH 414- Week 7: Essay

Aug 29, 2023

How does an armed group turn from “freedom fighters” into “terrorists”? Based on this week’s assigned reading, trace the key developments and events that led to ETA’s transformations, and its dissolution.

Week 7: Essay

How does an armed group turn from “freedom fighters” into “terrorists”? Based on this week’s assigned reading, trace the key developments and events that led to ETA’s transformations, and its dissolution.

Despite the different terms, stated to be “freedom fighter”, and “terrorist”, which continued to make an interchangeable format to describe the armed struggle. Thus, this categorized while continuing the division based on the academic notion created by the ethno-nationaliston necessary to fight militant groups under Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA). Euskadi Ta Askatasuna (ETA) mainly means Basque Land and Freedom. Therefore, this essay mainly focuses about the appearance that argued about the ETA arm which levels up the struggle on necessary components that retaliate against the Spanish government with Basque oppression, as therefore, they are based on the freedom fighter. Hence, to answer this question which mainly focuses on the struggle by the ETA who were armed to face a necessary struggle, while they have been defending against the government with the repression which took place, from the Basque identity (, 2018).

Moreover, this essay mainly relates the topic to discuss the ETA’s ideology which is rooted in cultural protection, with the terror attack which stigmatized or can promote the Spanish Agenda, alongside the form of the legitimacy to bring peace within the process of involvement. Therefore, to examine the ETA’s action, as contrasted with the academic definition as well as the actions undertaken by the terrorist group. Therefore, ETA played a significant role to enact like a key role to consolidating cultural beliefs. Moreover, being the freedom fighters, they have been involved within the terrorist group which was dislocated or they were responsible for causing isolation within the society.

None other than before concerning the consideration related to the ETA actions which plays a vital role that highlights the differences taking place between the “freedom fighter” and “terrorist”. Thus, in the case of extensive academics that left about the role of “freedom fighter”, which was open-ended. Thus, terrorism defines the board, and this can be consequently depreciated with the works which can be acted as the martyrs or often defined as the “Freedom Fighters”. Moreover, as compared to the Department of Prime Minister and the cabinet which was surmised with terrorism based on “the use of violence by groups or individuals pursuing political objectives,” that relates with involving indiscriminate attack. Moreover, based on the threshold which could have been easily related to the liberation movement with a ‘moral’ violation (, 2018).

This essay is mainly developed to focus on the armed group that turned from “freedom fighters” into “terrorists”. This often focuses on demonstrating ETA to deal with the fundamental system of the freedom fighter which was been armed struggle under necessity based on resisting the oppression of the Spanish government. As stated by Mironova (2019), ETA also played a critical role in protecting the Basque culture. Hence, through the violence part that dealt with oppression, as well as The Spanish government, they labeled ETA as a terrorist to justify the repressive action. Moreover, with the influence of this paper, this essay appears to conclude about the Spanish government which exploited the terms of the legitimized role played by Bush as ‘War Against Terror’. This war was guise under the condemnation of the ‘Dirty War’, made against the Basque community with a marginalized system of the Batasuna. As a result, ETA was involved in bringing peace that emphasized legitimacy and ensured about getting Basque freedom. Thus, ETA struggles to demonstrate Freedom of Speech which is necessarily based on the method to bring out true liberation.


Mironova, V. (2019). From freedom fighters to jihadists: Human resources of non-state armed groups. Oxford University Press. (April 19, 2018). Terrorists or Freedom Fighters: A Case Study of ETA. E-Internattional Relations. Retrieved from (Retrieved on October 19, 2022)

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