Chemical Thermodynamics Assignment Help
Chemical Thermodynamics is the study of the interrelation of work and heat with chemical reactions or with physical changes of state within the limits of the laws of thermodynamics. It involves not only the laboratory measurements of various thermodynamic properties, but also the application of mathematical methods for studying the chemical questions and the spontaneity of the processes. On the first two law of thermodynamics, the structure of chemical thermodynamics is based. Four equations called the “fundamental equations of Gibbs” can be derived from the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The chemical thermodynamics is generally used for predicting the energy exchanges that occur in the following processes-
- Phase changes
- The formation of solutions
- Chemical reactions
In chemical thermodynamics, the following state functions are of primary concern.
- Internal energy
- Gibbs free energy
In chemical thermodynamics, most identities arise from the first and the second law of thermodynamics. The 3 laws of thermodynamics-
- The Universe energy is constant
- There is always an increase in entropy of the universe.
- The entropy of a perfect crystal at 0 Kelvin is zero.
The Chemical energy is the potential of a chemical substance to transform other chemical substance or to undergo a transformation through chemical reaction. The making or breaking of chemical bonds involves energy that may be either evolved or absorbed from a chemical system. The energy that is released because of a reaction between a set of chemical substances is equal to the difference between the reactants and the energy content of the products. This change is known as the change in internal energy of a chemical reaction. In most cases in chemical thermodynamics, there are internal degree of processes and freedom such as phase transitions and chemical reactions, that always create entropy unless they are at equilibrium. Gibbs function– For a bulk system they are the last remaining extensive variables. Chemical affinity– This formulation is mathematically defensible. Though one does not simply remove or add molecules from a system, it is not particularly transparent. In changing a composition, a process is involved. All real processes obey conservation of mass, and the conservation of the numbers of atoms of each kind.
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