So much time and effort go into commencing business, it can be fascinating to sit back and catch a deep breath once we seem to like we’re off the charts. Organized companies need to discover ways not only to grow but to estimate standard product lines to make sure they are still encouraging. Since 1968, the BCG matrix, which is acknowledged as the Boston Consulting Group analysis or growth-share matrix, has served many companies queries by presenting them a way to examine product lines in the exploration of growth possibilities. Named after its inventor, the Boston Consulting Group, the BCG matrix intends to distinguish high-growth possibilities by classifying the company’s goods according to maturity rate and market percentage. By optimizing actual cash flows in high-potential commodities, a company can benefit from market-share growth possibilities. Reeves Martin, who is the senior partner and managing director of Boston Consulting Group, said that approximately 50 years after its commencement, the BCG matrix ensures an estimable tool for encouraging companies to understand their potential.

BCG Matrix

The chart above helps in Identifying the rank the business systems in units (or products) by their equal market shares and increase rates. Hence it helps in understand the BCG matrix in a more easier way and perspective.

  1. CASH COWS – This is where we can understand that whether the company has a high market share value in a slow developing industry. Here the units mainly depict the cash generated in the excess amount of cash required which is primarily needed to maintain the balance of the business. These are regarded as the boring and staid. In a matured market the owed value of the corporations helps them to understand their cash generating capabilities and qualities. Here the entities required to be “milked” regularly to make them sustain and help them survive in this low growth industry.

  3. DOGS – Here in this place DOGS are moreover recognized and termed as “pets,” these are mainly units which allow understanding the value of the low market share in a matured and slow growing industry. These units are required to “break even,” providing the generating capabilities enough cash to maintain the balance the business’s market shares. Thus this “break even” even helps in the social benefit in possible synergies and providing jobs which give the assisting power to other business entities though from the accounting point of view these types of units are worthless, as there are not generating any cash required by the company. They reduce a profitable company’s revenue on assets ratio, adopted by many investors to decide how well a company is holding. Dogs, it is believed, should be sold off.

  5. QUESTION MARKS – This also depicted as the “problematic children.” Are businesses serving with a low market share in a high-growth business? They are a starting point for most of the business markets. Question marks have a possibility to gain market share and mature to be stars, and finally cash cows when market growth becomes slow. If question marks do not benefit in maturing to be a market leader, then maybe after some years of cash consuming, this will decline to become dogs when market growth decreases. Question marks must be investigated carefully to conclude whether they are worth the investment required to grow market share values.

  7. STARS – These are those type of units which are mainly found in fast growing industries, they are mainly graduated from the stature of “QUESTION MARKS” with a niche or market leading trajectories. Stars demand high funding to support competitors and manage their growth rate balance. When industry extension slows, if they wait for a niche leader or are amongst the market administrators, stars become cash cows. Otherwise, they become dogs due to low comparable market share.


Any company utilizing the Boston Matrix or in short known as the BCG Matrix help explain its strategy, preferably than just implement an implication of future possibility, must adequately realize the cash flow of each trading unit or product being evaluated. There has been a trend for users to simplify the interpretation and to focus on classifying goods and business units as Stars, Question Marks, Cash Cows, and Dogs, rather than analyzing cash flow. This minor procedure has led to the matrix being viewed as unreasonable for organizations that want to improve their business, following in its decline in popularity. In the year of 1992, a study by Zwirlein and Slater showed that about 129 business entities they critiqued those who had used the BCG Matrix as a portion of their portfolio preparation performed below shareholder results to their investors.

The threat of focussing on business growth and market share is that it can support you to inspect other key determinants that determine your competing position. Also, you require to take into account interdependencies among your commodities and be conscious of the benefits of differentiation as a process to gain an ambitious edge. The BCG Matrix implies that the greater your market share, the more valuable your product or marketing unit will be. It also denies the plausibility that a cranny product with a base market share can be advantageous, while in actuality, many Dogs allow higher profit boundaries than several Cash Cows.
Another key determinant the matrix is inadequate to take into account is the features of the particular business sector you operate in. For example, ranking commodities or business systems often has a personal aspect and an ingredient of guesswork about future development. Some industry sectors may be more confident, insistent, and powerful than others about the rates of market growth and their market share. The senior administration of various ‘dot.com’ businesses in the early years of the 2000s showed this distinctly.
Below are the benefits as well as the limitations of BCG matrix, they are as follows:-
  • The BCG-Matrix is essential for administrators to assess and maintain the balance in the companies’ current portfolio of Stars, Question Marks, Cash Cows, and Dogs.
  • BCG-Matrix is relevant to large organizations that endeavor volume and expertise effects.
  • The BCG Model is very simple and easier to understand with the help of figures and appropriate knowledge.
  • It presents a base for administration to decide and develop for planned activities.
  • If an organization can utilize the knowledge curve to its success, it should be able to produce and sell new commodities at a value that is small enough to get new market share control. Once it converts to a star, it is intended to be effective.


  • Sometimes this model starts to neglect the consequences of synergies among different business systems.
  • High market share value is not only the primary achievement determinant.
  • Market maturity is not the only pointer for the attractiveness of a market’s potential growth.
  • The model utilizes only two dimensions which are mainly the market share value and extension rate. This may influence administration to highlight a distinct product or to divest precipitately.
  • The model underestimates small opponents that have fast developed-market share prices and rates too.

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