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Certain skills are necessary and need to be applied in academia to prove that one is honest. The skills are as follows:

  • Not all material needs a citation.Therefore the knowledge of which content needs citation and which does not is essential.
  • Knowledge of in-text referencing and using it as and when appropriate.
  • Be able to write a proper reference list and understand the distinction between a reference list and a bibliography
  • Implement acceptable record-keeping habits.
  • Use quotations appropriately.
  • Knowledge of how other’s ideas in writing need to be managed and presented.

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There could be different types of materials, but not all material requires attribution. Hence it’s vital to have the knowledge of which material requires attribution and which does not. One should know and be able to differentiate between what requires citation and what does not. The following do not require citation:

  • General knowledge – Is defined as any knowledge which is in the common domain and is used daily. • Common facts from varied sources which are generally agreed upon.• Ideas, suggestions, so on and so forth that are of a personal nature.

The following requires citation: • Quotation.• Reference to ideas that others have expressed verbally, in writing or on the web.• Reference made in a text has been cited in the text and another text cites the same reference.• Paraphrase of quotations of others.• Paraphrased ideas of others.• Facts and figures, charts, tables, pictures, graphs, so on and so forth.• An edited text may have material that has a reference.

Apparently, judgment is required to arrive at a decision as to what should and shouldn’t be cited; when in doubt though cite to be on the safe side.

How to use in-text referencing

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Citing in-text and preparing a reference list is about understanding the procedure. There are different systems of referencing and occasionally there are varied perceptions and interpretations of the chosen system. The Harvard system is the most commonly used system. There are systems that require reference lists towards the end of the text, while others require footnotes or endnotes linking the text with number or letter. As requirement changes so do the systems. It’s typical of academic journals and publishers to frequently have system related disagreements. They would usually be an indication from their end as to what might be using.

At the undergraduate level, there would be one system to follow, and that is the system that the college uses but flexibility is needed. The issue truly isn’t worth rebelling. There would be some intimation regarding the system that a student ought to and is expected to accept for their in-house work in writing. Usually, a booklet with illustration would be available. A student ought to know or at least adept at finding out how to go about with the following:

  • Quotations.• Direct references verbally or in writing.• References cited by someone else.• Paraphrase / précis of ideas.• Statistics and figurative material.• References within edited texts.• References to web-based materials.

How is a reference list distinct from a bibliography?

A reference list as the name suggests is a list of references made in a text. A bibliography in addition to being a reference list provides general information related to the topic. In academia for the most part reference lists is what students would be expected to work with. Nonetheless, it might be of use to be acquainted with how certain layout techniques are used on a reference list related to the work in writing. Habitual record-keeping should be implemented. A suitable system of maintaining records of what the student might be referring to and what has already been referred to should be in place. This may entail paper, card or electronic records. If students were to reference websites, then the date the website was accessed should be written down on the record as the information is needed for the reference list. Students need to figure out how the following should be labeled in their notes to avoid making mistakes while using them as a reference in future.

  • Quoting directly by noting the number of the page of a book. • Reference ideas of others as a paraphrase. • One’s own ideas and your own comments about another’s text.student-bibliography-by-assignments4u

It is frustrating to write about brilliant ideas and being unsure as to whether or not the ideas are one’s own based on what one has read or are the ideas an interpretation of someone else’s personal experiences. A personal code has to be decided upon and used consistently. Quotations should be used appropriately and entail reference of the quotation properly and following the applicable local rules or guidelines in relation to format and abbreviation as relevant. With regard to formatting, for example, quotations that are lengthy may need to be indented the reference on the right side within brackets on the line below the quotation. In relation to abbreviation, the rule usually is to put a dotted line which would be linked to the beginning of what has omitted with the text. Occasionally, due to what has been omitted, a word or two may need to be added so that the text that is retained makes sense. Should this be the case, the words within brackets should be added in the middle of the dotted line. Start or finish in-text quotation not at the end of a sentence, putting a dotted line should suffice.

How are presentations of ideas in writing managed?

Relating to ideas of others and managing them is an essential task for a writer concerning the higher study? It involves the following:

  • Summary of skills – where a general idea of the material needs to be given. The summary of the material would be attributed.
  • Paraphrasing skills – where abbreviation, as well as knowledge about the subject matter, is specific and precise. To paraphrase directly quoting the text isn’t required. The material that is paraphrased is attributed only.
  • Précis skills – where information in abbreviation is needed and is quite close to the meaning of the text and quoting directly is permissible. Even single technical jargons would have quotation marks and wherever quoted directly would have attribution.
  • Two related ideas – Assemblies of ideas as evidence, a comparison so on and so forth
  • Proper reference  Without defining or even knowing the words for the summary, paraphrase, and précis, using the techniques as and when required, and appropriate citation is all that is needed. Usually, the processes that are implemented would have a definite purpose behind them; need for abbreviation or the need to narrate what someone might be thinking so that a point can be made. A summary would be guided by the purpose; by relating to the purpose, the point is introduced.

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