WHAT IS THERMODYNAMICS?
- It is the study of heat, energy, and work of a system. Here the branch of physics is mainly concerned with temperature and heat and their close relation between work and energy. Thermodynamics is constituted of its four laws which are Zeroth Law, First Law, Second Law and Third Law. In Thermodynamics, the interactions between various large parts of objects are verified, studied and categorized accordingly to it. Thermodynamics was developed to increase the work and efficiency of early steam engines.
- As we have said in the above paragraph that Thermodynamics consists of four important laws, here are the descriptions of each law, which will make you understand that why these laws are important in the study of Thermodynamics. They are as follow:-
- Zeroth Law - This law states that if two Thermodynamic systems are present in a thermal equilibrium position, then they are said to be in thermal equilibrium with each other. It is said that when two systems are linked by a wall permeable only to heat, hence they do not change over time.
- First law - Here the first law states that heat is a typical form of energy and the processes of thermodynamics are subject to the principle conservation of energy. Which in simple terms means that the energy heat cannot be created either can be destroyed, Heat energy can be transferred or transformed from one place to another. Heat energy can be converted to different types of other energy forms too.
- Second Law - The Second law states the relationships between thermal energy and other forms of energy. This second law states that when a system is isolated for a very long time it tends to degenerate into a very disordered state, and when energy is being transferred or transformed this state tends to waste half of the energy forms more vividly.
- Third Law - The last but not the least, the Third Law states that it is concerned with the limiting behavior of thermodynamics as the temperature of any system drops down to absolute zero level.
BENEFITS IN STUDYING THERMODYNAMICS
- Thermodynamics is the most modern science which is related to our day to day lives. It is so present in our daily lives that it has become our normal common sense. It is much more that just common sense. Thermodynamics is not only the study of energy and heat alone. It is the study of dynamic behavioral change of energy and its manifestations. As energy is the only thing that keeps going on and on without even thinking of taking rest. In most common usage and language Thermodynamics is required in engineering in understanding the study of energy and its various interconversions from one form to another. Thermodynamics has several types of Applications in our day to day lives like the use of Jet engines, Spark-ignition engines, and fossil-fueled steam power plants.
- One of the important fields of thermodynamics is heat transfer, which relates to transfer of heat between two media. There are three modes of heat transfer: convection, conduction, and radiation. The concept of heat transfer is used in wide range of devices like heaters, evaporators, condensers, radiators, coolers, heat exchangers, etc. Even the human body also obeys the study of thermodynamics, and it's laws. Suppose the experience of being in a crowded but small where there are other people present in the same room. After some time the people who are inside that room will start to sweat heavily and will feel the exhaustive warmth inside the chamber. This process of sweating helps the body to cool itself down. When heat is being transferred from one human body to another, then only the human body starts to sweat which helps the body to regulate its temperature. When more and more heat is generated from each of the people present inside the room, the temperature tends to increase more and makes the whole room warm. As here the Crowded room full of people inside it represents The Closed System of Thermodynamics.
- Thermodynamics helps us to learn the mere existence of human being and other living organisms on earth. This why the study of Thermodynamics is equally important in understanding the daily changes which take place in our daily life cycle. This is why it is beneficial in studying it properly.
IMPORTANCE OF THERMODYNAMICS
- Energy is available everywhere throughout the universe. Loosely, we can say that energy is available in, available form or in raw form. But for serving our daily technological and basic needs, we need energy in the desired form or cooked form. You can see the analogy with cooking here (you cook raw food to a form capable and suitable for consumption, which a basic human needs).
- The desired form of energy is utilized in a plethora of applications ranging from power generation, heating, cooling, human comfort, transport, space exploration, medical science, cooking, chemical processes, combustion, etc. The principles of thermodynamics inherently achieve all these.
- Thermodynamics is involved in almost all spheres of life and will continue to touch countless lives forever. ‘Important’ is an understatement when it comes to thermodynamics.
- Instead, think the reverse form of life without thermodynamics and its uses, the following pointers will let us understand that what could have gone wrong if we do not follow the rules and the laws of Thermodynamic Principles:-
- We were not able to have the energy to move since our metabolism is the result of the first law of thermodynamics. And also most living things since all need food and their body must be maintained at some suitable temperature.
- Think there is no heating in winter since there are no heat pumps or heating systems at home or any place.
- Similar to #2., the summer would be unbearable without air conditioners. Think scorching countries with 45 centigrade degrees in the shadow.
- Without the use of refrigerators or fridges, meals would start to decompose stink.
- There would not be cars, airplanes, buses, ships, etc. All we need which is only one thermodynamic machine which is called as an engine.
- There would not be sufficient electricity since thermal power plants require thermodynamic cycle that is called Rankine cycle. Even nuclear power plants use thermodynamic cycle and processes, and so on.
- Thermodynamics is an exciting and interesting subject that deals with energy, which is essential for the sustenance of life. Thus thermodynamics has long been an integral and important part of engineering curriculum all across the world.
- It has a broad utilization area, Which ranges from standard household appliances to microscopic organisms, transportation vehicles, power generation systems and even philosophy.
ADVANTAGES OF STUDYING THERMODYNAMICS
- Students or learners who study the subject of thermodynamics usually find it to be one of the endless challenging topics, particularly at more exceptional levels where calculus is an integral part of the subject. It is, however, significant topics in both Chemistry and Physics. It is something that all engineers, physics scientists, and biologists even study about this.
- Thermodynamics is mainly the study of Energy and Heat. People use these terms "temperature" and "heat energy," interchangeably, but heat is only one type of energy. Hence temperature represents a different kind of energy.
THERMODYNAMICS ASSIGNMENT TOPICS
- There are many such topics in Thermodynamics Assignments and which help students to get prepared before they appear for their examinations as well as prepare their assignments or homework. Following are the names and short descriptions about the topics presented below:-
- Conservation of Energy - According to Physics, the law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system always remains constant, as it is said to be conserved over time. As we all know that energy can neither be created nor be destroyed, rather it transforms from one form to another seamlessly. Like chemical energy can be converted to kinetic energy.
- Thermodynamic Equilibrium - It is an axiomatic concept of studies in Thermodynamics. Thermodynamic Equilibrium is an internal state of a single system which is connected by more or less permeable or impermeable walls. In thermodynamic equilibrium, there is no net macroscopic flow of energy or matter neither within a system nor between systems.
- The Ideal Gas Law - It is an equation state of a hypothetical ideal gas, Which is a good approximation about the behaviors of various other gases, under different circumstances but it has several limitations. It was first widely stated by Emile Clapeyron in the year of 1834 as a combination of Charle’s Law, Avogadro’s Law and Boyle’s Law. This Ideal Gas Law is often shown as an equation format which is . Whereas the (P) is written as the pressure of the gas, (V) is the Volume of the gas, (n) is the amount of substance of gas, (R) is the gas constant which is equal to the product of the Avogadro constant and the Boltzmann Constant, and (T) is the absolute temperature of the gas.
- Thermal Expansion - The tendency of a matter to change its area, volume, and shape due to increase in temperature of the material or the substance. It is expressed as a fractional amount of change in the volume or length per unit of temperature changes occur. In a liquid or a solid, there is a dynamic balance between the cohesive forces which are holding the molecules or atoms together when the conditions created by temperature. Higher or increased temperature implies greater distance amongst atoms. Different and various materials and substances have different bonding forces which help them to attract each other and stay together in an entire and exact form.
- The Work-Energy Theorem - When we move an object or substance, we tend to increase the kinetic energy present in the object which is known as the energy of motion. When a moving object is put on halt then also we have tried working on the object to make its movements stop at a point. But in this case, we are decreasing the kinetic energy. Whether we are reducing or increasing a substance or an object’s kinetic energy, The amount of work done upon it is equal to the change in energy. This significant relationship is known as “The Work-Energy Theorem”.
- Different Types of Thermodynamic System - We all know that Thermodynamics is the branch of physics and science which helps in the studies of various forms energies and the conversion of their energy forms from one to another seamlessly. Thermodynamics is an important matter if study which is an area of study which depicts a small part of Mechanical Engineering. There are different types of thermodynamic systems which are as follows:
- a) System - A quantity of a substance or part of space which comes under the thermodynamic study is called as a system.
- b) Environment or Surroundings - The things which are external to space and matter which comes under the study of Thermodynamics is called as environment or surroundings.
- c) Boundary - When a boundary is separating a system, and it's surroundings, then this separation is called as system boundary.
- d) Closed System - When no mass transfer can take place within a system of fixed mass across the boundary, then this system is called as a closed system.
- e) Open System - When a system across the boundary of which the transfer of both energy, as well as mass, takes place across the boundary is called as an open system.
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