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**1.** Show the complete reactions and balance the nuclear reaction equations shown below:

**2.** Calculate the binding energy (in MeV) of (a) the last proton and (b) the last neutron in 235U.

**3.** Calculate the energy release (in MeV) when 238U decays to 234Th. Some of the energy is in the kinetic energy of the recoiling alpha particle. How would you calculate this energy?

**4.** Calculate the number of 238U (a) atoms (b) femtograms and (c) Bq in 1 gram of typical ‘wiki’ granitic rock.

**5.**Calculate the age of a sample using the half-life for C-14 originally measured by Libby and by the currently accepted half-life. How does the difference between the two ages change if the sample is about 1k, 10k or 50k years old?

**6.**The half life of Cs-135 has been estimated to be 3Ma by ORNL and 1.85 and 2.3Ma by Sugarman. How many atoms per Bq are calculated using the 3 different half lives? Suggest three reasons why the half life measurements might be so different

**7.**Build a spread sheet for the conversions for 5 common radionuclides of your choice between Bq, atoms and femtograms. For 1 Bq of each radionuclide, calculate the # of atoms and femtograms. Chose 5 radionuclides that interest you. Submit your spreadsheet page with enough headings that someone can follow your logic

**8.**Using the Bateman equations calculate the activity in Bq of a mixture of Rn 220 and Po-216 over a period of 20 minutes. Assume that you start (t=0) with 100,000 Bq of Rn-220 and 0 Bq of Po-216. Show a graph of both isotopes vs time over this time period

**9.** The porosity of the granite rock is 0.005%. Assume that 10% of the 222Rn in the typical granite rock escapes into the porosity. What is the concentration of radon gas in Bq/m3 in the soil air assuming secular equilibrium?

**10.** A sediment sample contains 1.5 Bq/g of Pb-210. Calculate the number of atoms and Bq of Pb-210, Bi-210 and Po-210 assuming that all 3 isotopes are in secular equilibrium.

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