Policy Analysis Paper
Write a policy analysis paper on your selected problem/policy. Use the comprehensive framework below as a guide for the structure of your paper.
The following is a Framework for Policy Analysis Paper and what to look for in your academic sources.Because it is so comprehensive the manner in which it is applied most logically,will vary per individual paper topics.
I.Definition of the problem
A.How is the problem defined?What ,for example,does pollution joblessness,or health care mean?
B.Who is affected by the problem? In what ways? (e.g., people with asthma, unemployed steelworkers, the elderly)
C.Who defines it as a problem? Why do they think it is a problem? One cannot assume that every social problem is recognised as such.
D.Who does not define it as a problem? Why not? Is it due to ignorance of the situation, to personal values or ideology, to indifference, to belief in the futility of solving the problem?
E.Who are the key decision-makers (individuals or groups) that presently control the power and resources that affect the problem? (state legislators; news media; interest groups etc.)
A.[Macro view] What are the social/structural sources of the problem (e.g., distribution of power, wealth and status, political ideologies, societal values and norms, existing policies and programs, culture.
B.[Micro view] What are the sources of the problem inherent in individuals who share the problem? (lack of education, mental health, disabled, race, gender, age)
C.Are the causes found in transitory social phenomena such as international crises, seasonal factors, economic cycles, etc.?
D.How much-verified knowledge is there about the causes of the problem? What are the known, measurable facts?
III. Policy Goals and Objectives
A.What is the most generally accepted (if that exists) desired goal in respect to the problem? This is a statement of the ideal outcome. (e.g., higher education should be 100% state funded, the traffic lights in downtown should be timed, garbage pickup should be privatised)
B.What are the achievable objectives? These should be stated in operational, measurable terms. Statements of objectives take into consideration rational and non-rational constraints. Objectives can be specified in relation to:
- The total societal problem or some aspect of the problem (in one year to reduce by 30% the amount of outstanding child support debt, to reduce by 10% the cost of garbage pickup)
- The total target and risk population (increase childhood immunisations by10% in one year)
- A proportion or sub-group of that population (reduce by 20% the number of uninsured children)
A.What policy has been developed to deal with the problem? Briefly discuss the history and scope of this policy.
B.What is the legislative history and political processes through which this policy developed (or a change in this policy took place?).
C.What are the core values (e.g., equality, equity, fiscal savings, revenue enhancing) or ideology on which this policy is based? (limited government, incrementalism, economics)
D.What choices (including value choices) does this policy make regarding: a) allocations (recipients of policy benefits); b) service delivery (how the policy is implemented); and (c) financing and funding (how will the policy be paid)?
E.What alternatives (including value choices) are not chosen as policy choices are evaluated.
F.What is your assessment of the strengths and weaknesses of this policy? What is the policy actually doing, rather than what is claimed?
G.Are the results of these policies and programs being evaluated? If not, why not? If yes, are findings being utilised?
Based on the best information about effectiveness, are these policies and programs likely to reduce, increase, or leave the problem unchanged? In other works, what is happening in the implementation of these policies?
A.What specific set of recommendations do you propose for policy change? In recommending alternative policies, incorporate experiences within the United States and, when relevant, the experiences of other nations.
B.How do these alternative policies affect allocations, provision, service delivery, and financing mechanisms?
VI Action Considerations
A.What institutions, organisations, and decisions-makers are primarily responsible for achieving this policy change?
B.What are the major sources of support for achieving the desired policy change (e.g , constituencies, influential individuals, media, public support)
C.Conversely, what are the major sources of resistance to change?
D.What kinds of knowledge are needed in order to affect change?
E.What strategies must be employed to affect change’?
1.Consensus strategies, such as public information
2.Changing attitudes and values
3.Political strategies such as negotiation, compromise
4.Conflict strategies such as confrontation, protest