Explain how you would work with Maria and Richard using one of the following holistic approaches: Self-Efficacy Beliefs, Learned Optimism
Analyze each case (Maria’s and Richard’s) in terms of the influence of gender and family life on their career decisions and development.
- Brief summary of both cases
- How to work with Maria and Richard with…………………. Approach
Be specific, give examples of how you would use the approach
Analyze Maria’s and Richards’s in terms of gender
Case Study one
Maria Rodriguez is a 24-year-old unmarried woman who lives at home with her parents and two younger siblings. She seeks to counsel because she wants to be less self-critical and set some goals in life. She works as a technical support staff at a cellular company. She enjoys her work. She went to a community college. She would like to pursue a 4 years degree but wonders if she will be successful academically. She reported that she graduated from community college with Gpa 3.7 grade. She is concern that degree will be harder and has no idea what she wants to do.
Maria adds that it will be difficult for her to study, work with her family responsibilities. Her younger brother has cystic fibrosis, and her mom depends on her to help with his care as well as other duties around the house. Another brother age 19 works full time and is rarely at home to assist her. Her father is a dominant figure but is absent for long periods due to his drinking problem. She thought of moving out but is the concern for her mom managing on her own.
Case study 2
Richard Johnson is 52 years old. Sought counseling through the suggestion of his physician. Richard has made four trips to the hospital emergency room in 3 months because he is certain he was having a heart attack. In the first session with the counselor, Richard described the symptoms which were described as a textbook panic attack. Richard’s wife was with him in the session. She appeared to be supported by him getting counseling and provided this information about herself. She works part time in a Hallmark shop taking care of sales, inventory and store management duties. The counselor noted that Richard is highly verbal, well read and can quote passages from Kafka and Tolstoy, he did not finish high school, try to GED but quit saying it is boring. Has been employed for 18years as a forklift operator. He and wife married for 24 years and have no children. Richard described his job as unchallenging but adds that it takes care of family finances. He says he enjoys refinishing old furniture’s ad made gifts for friends. Richard goals for counseling are ill-defined he feels as though his life has no meaning and he is just drifting through.
Career counselors’ needs to help clients develop a sense of efficacy rather than simply exhorting them. A person with strong self-efficacy about his or her ability to relate to people, but poor efficacy but poor efficacy beliefs around academic learning.
Self-efficacy expectations are learned and that, therefore, new expectations can be learned. There are three keys to self-efficacy: actions, effort, and persistence. Counselors can help clients develop a sense of efficacy through empowering experiences, role models, messages, and emotions. The counselor can help clients develop new empowering experiences from the past. People need to have dreams and turn them into visions (Goodman,2012)
The second Holistic approach
Optimism is a critical life skill that can be learned. Goodman, (2012) cited Seligman (1998) teaching skills. Teaching skills can transform pessimists into optimists. The first skills are the distraction, which is a process of shifting focus away from distressing thoughts toward more positive ones. The admonition “dont think about it, does not seem to work” The admonition, think about something positive instead.
The second technique is disputation, which is a process of actually arguing with a thought either internal self-talk or negative statements that have been made by others. Three suggestions for disputation are:
Evidence: encourage clients to ask themselves, what is the actual evidence that this thought or accusation is true. Find contrary evidence. For example, if clients are thinking that because they performed poorly on a test, they are terrible students, remind them of others that were done well.
Alternatives: encourage clients to ask themselves, what the alternatives explanations for this event are
Implications: Encourage clients to consider their catastrophic expectations and then examine whether they are really likely.
Briefly, the trick is to learn to identify adverse situations or events that you routinely face. Learn to hear the beliefs about those events that come to your mind (the “recordings” you play in your head). Feel the consequences of those beliefs (and write them down), in terms of emotions, energy, will act, etc. Once you have gotten familiar with these components, dispute those beliefs and distract yourself. Disputation can involve challenging the usefulness of the belief, generating alternative specific, external, and temporary explanations, focusing on evidence that contradicts or undermines the negative belief and supports a more positive interpretation, and challenging negative implications on which harmful beliefs rely. In addition to disputation, distraction can be employed to stop the “loop” of these tapes in your head. One suggestion is to wear a rubber band and snap it on your wrist while saying “Stop” in a loud voice. Then write the worrisome beliefs, fears, etc. down to think about at a set future time. This leaves one free to act.