The body mass index (BMI) is a number that estimates the amount of fat in human body using measurements of individual’s weight and height. The BMI is calculated using formulas:
BMI is used for assessment of obesity-related risk for heart disease, diabetes, osteoarthritis, cancer, sleep apnea, abdominal hernias, varicose veins, gout, gall bladder disease, respiratory problems, and liver malfunction. The increased risk for these diseases and conditions are calculated by observing population. For example, type 2 diabetes is three times more common in individuals with BMI>30, than in normal population. BMI is not a very precise measure – there are differences in definition of BMI in different populations, and also between individuals. Athletes, for example, tend to have a high BMI, but low proportion of fat in their bodies. Nevertheless, BMI is broadly used. It is often combined with the measurement of waist circumference or waist-to-height ratio. The geographic differences of BMI are shown in Table 1. A lookup table of BMI values and categories is shown in Table 2. The use of BMI requires careful application and corrections for individual and population variation.
Table 1 Definition of BMI categories for US/European population and for Asian populations.
Table 2 A lookup table of BMI categories for US adult population
1.What are limitations of BMI lookup table shown in Table 2?
2.Implement a simple universal BMI calculator that automatically calculates BMI given weight and height measurements using either metric system or imperial system and classifies weight category given patients’ race (US/Europe or Asian population). The focus is on the understanding of the BMI calculation, not programming skills. Any form of implement is fine, for example Excel, or a command program.
A diagnostic test has been used to detect respiratory disease. A dataset has been constructed based on test results of 10,000 people. Among the 10,000, 500 have respiratory disease and 9500 do not have the disease. 350 of the 500 people with respiratory disease and 1900 of the 9500 people without respiratory disease got positive test results.
1.Construct a contingency table based on the dataset.
2.Calculate the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Multiple algorithms for calculating drug dosage for children have been discussed in (Lack and Stuart-Taylor, 1007). Note: Average adult BSA (body surface area) is around 1.73 m².
1.Draw a flow chart or write pseudo codes that facilitate a software developer to implement a program using Salisbury rule children drug dosage calculation method (described on page 603 of the paper).
2.Implement a children’s drug dosage calculation system based on your flowchart or pseudo code. The system must not only perform the dose calculation, but also provide users with relevant textual information if necessary.
3.On page 602 and 603 of the paper, multiple BSA calculation methods are presented. Implement a universal BSA calculator with at least 2 calculation methods that accepts input in both metric units and imperial units.
The focus is not on programming skills. Any form of implement is fine, for example Excel, or a command program.
Lack JA and Stuart-Taylor ME. Calculation of drug dosage and body surface area of children.