Answer This Following MCQ Questions

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Which figure correctly shows cold air advection?

 

SKU: Repo666554

1.The image below shows the Earth’s terminator,as viewed from space.Which of the following is TRUE about the terminator?

MOON

a. It’s the fixed boundary between Earth’s daylit side and night side

b. It’s an example of a Great Circle

c. It’s the moving boundary between Earth’s daylit side and night side

d. Both b and c

e. Both a and b

 

2. Shown below is an infrared (IR) image of the U.S., showing the Blizzard of 2015 off the East Coast. This was a very large cyclone with widespread precipitation, both snow and rain. At which location (shown by the labels) would you expect the heaviest precipitation to be occurring?

MAP

a. Location A

b. Location B

c. Location C

d. Location D

e. Location E

 

3. You got an “A” in Physical Geography and are so excited, it’s time to call your good friend in Melbourne, Australia. However, you don’t want to call your friend when he might be asleep. You have a landline phone but not a cell phone, so you don’t know the time. You ask your roommate, who is meteorology major, for the time, and he cheerfully states it is 1450 GMT, February 7. Using this information, what date and time is it in Melbourne? (Your friend also cheerfully reminds you that Melbourne practices Daylight Savings Time).

All times shown are local time.

a. 1:50 PM, Feb 7

b. 1:50 AM, Feb 8

c. 1:50 PM, Feb 6

d. 1:50 AM, Feb 6

e. 12:50 AM, Feb 8

 

4. The image below shows a type of device in museums, called a Foucault Pendulum. The pendulum consists of a heavy, spherical mass suspended on a string. The mass is set to oscillate back and forth, with minimal loss of momentum due to friction. A graduated scale encircles the base of the pendulum on the floor. Which of the following statements is NOT true about the behavior of a pendulum?

BALL

a. If the pendulum is located at the North or South Pole, the plane of the pendulum’s oscillation remains fixed relative to the stars

b. At the North or South Pole, the pendulum offers unequivocal proof that the Earth spins about its axis

c. At the North Pole, if you were able to hover in a stationary manner above the floor (magical powers of levitation), the graduated scale would appear to move toward the right

d. At the South Pole, if you were able to hover in a stationary manner above the floor (magical powers of levitation), the graduated scale would appear to move toward the right

e. If the pendulum apparatus is located exactly on the Equator, the plane of oscillation constantly changes orientation with respect to the stars

 

5. Shown in the figure below is surveyor’s tripod facing a large mountain in the near-distance. Suspended from the tripod is small, lead weight on a string, a device called a plumb bob. The bob remains stationary. The bob always aligns itself with the gravity vector. However, a careful (indeed, microscopic) examination of the apparatus reveals a tiny deflection of the plumb bob (shown by the angle,β , greatly exaggerated for clarity). What causes this deflection?

EARTH

a. Earth’s spin, which creates a centrifugal force

b. Error in the surveyor’s instrument

c. The additional mass of the mountain, which shifts the orientation of the gravity vector

d. A stiff wind, which nudges the bob

e. Both a and c

 

6. The figure below shows the Earth’s true shape – the shape of the sea surface, which must conform to the Earth’s gravity field. Note that the curves are greatly exaggerated for clarity. Of the labels shown, which curved shape represents the Earth’s geoid?

ROUND

a. Label A

b. Label B

c. Label C

d. None of these

 

7. This color map shows the detailed shape of Earth’s geoid (sea level surface), mapped on a 2D (flat) surface. The numbers show the height difference between the geoid and an imaginary, 3D surface, called the spheroid. Suppose you are sailing on a ship across the Indian Ocean (green region shown on the map). Which of the following statements is NOT true about your voyage?

METERS

a. You remain on the geoid surface your entire journey

b. You are sailing through a region significantly below the reference spheroid

c. Sailing across this entire region, the ship drops by almost 110 m then rises again by the same amount, all without doing work against gravity

d. A local accumulation of mass in the Earth’s crust is responsible for the depressed geoid values in this region

 

8. True or False: Because of the spinning Earth, a person standing on the equator will weighs slightly less than a person standing on the South Pole.

a. True

b. False

Shown below is a diagram of Earth’s atmosphere, showing its various layers. Answer the following questions referencing this diagram.

LAYER

9. This layer is characterized by temperature increasing with altitude, ozone- rich air, and extremely dry air.

a. Layer A

b. Layer B

c. Layer C

d. Layer D

 

10. This layer is characterized by temperature decreasing with altitude, high water vapor concentration, 21% oxygen, and pressure decreasing rapidly with altitude.

a. Layer A

b. Layer B

c. Layer C

d. Layer D

 

11. This layer is characterized by temperature decreasing with altitude, pressure decreasing very slowly with altitude, 78% nitrogen, and the absolute coldest temperature of any layer.

a. Layer A

b. Layer B

c. Layer C

d. Layer D

 

12. The following phase change of water is associated with the addition of slightly more than 3,000 KJ/kg (kilojoules per kg of water substance) of heat energy into the atmosphere:

a. Condensation

b. Evaporation

c. Sublimation

d. Deposition

e. Freezing

 

13. You and a buddy are going to hike to the top of Mt. Mitchell in North Carolina. The mountain’s peak is located almost exactly 2 km above mean sea level. You are hiking during late spring and wonder if a coat is needed for the summit. The forecast high temperature for the surrounding valley, at an elevation of 500 m, is 80° F. You remember from Physical Geography that the average tropospheric lapse rate is 6.5° C/km. Some quick calculations on your iPhone predict the following temperature at the summit:

a. 75° F

b. 71° F

c. 68° F

d. 62° F

e. 57° F

 

14. During your summit climb, you are sporting a new digital altimeter, part of your wristwatch. You carefully calibrate the watch at the start of your journey by making sure it registers the same elevation at the base of the mountain as shown on a topographic map. You start the climb at 7 AM and summit around 3 PM. Once at the top, you compare your altimeter with the published elevation of the mountain…and notice that your altimeter reads 250 feet too high. You conclude the following must be true:

a. I bought a cheap piece of junk!

b. The published USGS elevation is wrong

c. I didn’t take into account changing weather conditions – a low pressure

d.I didn’t take into account changing weather conditions – a high pressure system moving across North Carolina system moving across North Carolina

 

15. True or False: When we compare the emission spectra of both the Sun and the Earth, we observe that the Sun’s emission demonstrates great power at short wavelengths, centered in the visible light spectrum. The Earth’s emission, by contrast, is centered in the longwave infrared, at low power. The foregoing is a statement of two fundamental laws describing radiation: The Stefan-Boltzmann and Wien Laws.

a. True

b. False

Shown below is a nomogram of 24-hour solar radiation reaching the top of the atmosphere, expressed as a percentage of the global annual average radiation. The diagram shows how insolation varies with latitude and time of year. Answer the following questions referring to this diagram.

CYCLE

 

16. At point “A”, at 40° N during June, the percent of global average is approximately

a. 50%

b. 80%

c. 130%

d. 150%

 

17. At the North Pole, during June, the maximum percentage is actually LARGER than the value at 40° N. How might you explain this curious phenomenon?

a. During summer, most sea ice temporarily melts, reducing the reflection of solar radiation to space

b. The Noon sun is highest in the sky at the Arctic Circle in June

c. Length of Day is 24 hours at the Pole, compared with 15 hours at 40° N

d. The Sun’s rays pass through a thinner layer of atmosphere at the Pole vs. 40° N

 

18. A careful examination of this diagram reveals that the summer maximum is slightly larger in the southern hemisphere, compared to the northern hemisphere (140-150% vs. 130-140% for 40° S vs. 40° N, respectively). Why do you suppose this is?

a. There is more ocean than land in the southern hemisphere, allowing that  hemisphere to radiate more heat into the atmosphere, keeping it a bit warmer in summer

b. The southern hemisphere is tilted more strongly toward the Sun during summer

c. Length of Day is slightly longer for southern hemisphere locations

d. The southern hemisphere is slightly closer to the Sun during June (perihelion), increasing insolation values by a few percentage points

Earth’s energy balance can be simply expressed as:

ΔT = Solar(IN) – Infrared(OUT)

where ΔT is the global, average change in temperature at the surface. Knowing this, answer the following questions:

 

19. Over the course of a year, ΔT = 0. This means all of the following statements are true, EXCEPT:

a. Earth’s surface temperature does not change over the course of a year

b. Over the course of a year, Solar(IN) = Infrared(OUT)

c. The Earth radiates as much longwave infrared, from its entire spherical surface, as it receives from solar shortwave, over the daylight half only

d. There is no Greenhouse Effect occurring

 

20. Over the past 150 years, Earth’s average surface temperature has warmed approximately 1.5° F. In light of the radiation balance, all of the following statements must be true, EXCEPT:

a. During the past 150 years, Solar(IN) has increased relative to Infrared(OUT)

b. During the past 150 years, Infrared(OUT) has decreased relative to Solar(IN)

c. The Greenhouse Effect has become enhanced

d. The enhanced Greenhouse Effect has reduced the magnitude (intensity) of Infrared(OUT)

The surface temperature of Venus is much, much hotter than Earth’s surface – in fact, it’s hot enough to melt lead! Look at the following table of data comparing the key parameters describing the radiation balance for each planet. A planet’s surface temperature is due primarily to three factors: (a) distance from the Sun; (b) planetary albedo; and (c) atmospheric Greenhouse Effect.

venus

et

In this table, Solar(IN) = average insolation received at the top of the atmosphere; albedo = percentage of insolation reflected from cloud tops; TE = theoretical, equilibrium temperature at the surface computed from the radiation balance (IN=OUT) but without a Greenhouse Effect; Tobs = observed (actual) surface temperature; and (Tsfc – TE) = the difference between the observed and theoretical surface temperature.

 

21. Given the data presented above, and your reasoning, which of these statements is NOT true?

a. Venus, because it is much closer to the Sun than Earth, receives on average 4.5 times as much solar energy as Earth

b. Venus has a much larger albedo than Earth, mainly because the entire planet is deeply enshrouded by thick, overcast cloud, and thus highly reflective

c. Paradoxically, the theoretical surface temperature of Venus is much colder than Earth, in spite of being closer to the Sun, because Venus has such a large albedo

d. The difference between the observed surface temperature, and the theoretical temperature, must be due to the Greenhouse Effect, which causes the surface to warm

e. The enormous Greenhouse Effect on Venus is due to a very high concentration of molecular oxygen in that atmosphere

Shown below are five climograph, for different world regions. Climographs show how temperature changes over the course of a year at a given location. For the five questions below, match the climograph with its correct geographic location letter.

ro

22. Climograph 1

month

Pencil in the correct location (A, B, C, D or E) on your Scantron.

 

23. Climograph 2

month.1

Pencil in the correct location (A, B, C, D or E) on your Scantron.

 

24. Climograph 3

mon

Pencil in the correct location (A, B, C, D or E) on your Scantron.

 

25. Climograph 4

 

112

Pencil in the correct location (A, B, C, D or E) on your Scantron.

 

26. Climograph 5

40

Pencil in the correct location (A, B, C, D or E) on your Scantron.

 

27. The following chart shows a record (time series plot) of temperature at Professor Halverson’s home on February 4, 5 and 6, 2015 (three days of continuous temperature data). For each day, shown are 24 hours of data, with Midnight and Noon highlighted. On Feb 4, the day’s high temperature (50° F) was reached at 4 pm. On Feb 6, a high of 35° F was reached at 4 pm. But on Feb 5, the day’s high temperature (42° F) came at 5 AM that morning! The day turned out mostly sunny. Which statement is most likely NOT TRUE?

13

a. The morning’s high was not caused by solar insolation, since sunrise was not until 7:12 AM on this day

b. An arctic front with strong cold air advection occurred early that morning, causing the temperature to plummet – in spite of solar radiation

c. There was a major snowstorm, with over a foot of accumulation in Baltimore, that chilled the air throughout the day

d. The day’s high temperature occurred uncharacteristically early (just before sunrise), inverting the normal diurnal temperature pattern

Shown below is a diagram of temperature advection. Note the gradient in temperature at the surface, ranging from 64 °F in the north and 70 °F in the south. Arrows depict the direction and strength of the wind (arrow length is proportional to wind speed). Answer the following questions, based on this diagram:

60

 

28. Which figure correctly shows cold air advection?

a. Figure A

b. Figure B

c. Figure C

d. None of the figures

 

29. Which figure shows strong warm air advection?

a. Figure A

b. Figure B

c. Figure C

d. None of the figures

 

30. Which figure depicts weak warm air advection?

a. Figure A

b.Figure B

c. Figure C

d. None of the figures

 

31. Which figure shows neither warm nor cold air advection?

a. Figure A

b. Figure B

c. Figure C

d. None of the figures

 

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