Geology Assignment Help
Geology is an earth science that comprises the study of solid Earth, the processes by which they change and the rocks of which it is composed of. Geology generally refer to the study of the solid features of any celestial body. It gives insight into the history of the Earth
. It provides the evolutionary history of life, evidence for plate tectonics and past climates
. It is important for hydrocarbon and mineral exploration and exploitation, evaluation of water resources, the remediation of environmental problems, understanding of natural hazards, and for providing insights into past climate change. It also plays a role in geotechnical engineering
. Geology is a major academic discipline.
The geological data comes from research on solid Earth materials. These generally fall into one of two categories: unconsolidated material and rock.
There are three major types of rock: sedimentary, and metamorphic and igneous rock. The rock cycle is an important concept in geology that explains the relationships between these three types of rock, and magma. When a rock crystallizes from magma or lava it is known as igneous rock. This rock can be eroded, and weathered and then redeposited into a sedimentary rock, or can turned into a metamorphic rock due to the heat and pressure that change the mineral content of the rock that gives it a characteristic fabric. Due to the heat and pressure the sedimentary rock can then be subsequently turned into a metamorphic rock and is then weathered, eroded, deposited, ultimately becoming a sedimentary rock. The Sedimentary rock may also be redeposited and re-eroded and metamorphic rock may also undergo additional metamorphism. These three types of rocks may be re-melted; after this, a new magma is formed, from which an igneous rock may once again crystallize.
Geologists also studied un lithified material that typically comes from more recent deposits. These materials are superficial deposits which lie above the bedrock. Due to this, the study of such material is often known as Quaternary geology, after the recent Quaternary Period. This includes the study of soils and sediment that include studies in sedimentology,geomorphology, and paleoclimatology.
In the 1960s, a series of discoveries, showed that the Earth's lithosphere, that includes the crust and rigid uppermost portion of the upper mantle, is separated into a number of tectonic plates that move across the solid, plastically deforming upper mantle, which is called the asthenosphere
. The plate tectonics provided a physical basis for many observations of the solid Earth.