ABOUT CORPORATE FINANCE
- Corporate finance is that area of financial study which deals with the sources of capital structure and the funding of corporations, the activities that managers take to increase the value of an organization, to the shareholders, and the tools required to analyze and allocate all the financial resources. The principal purpose of corporate finance is to maximize or enhance shareholder value. Though, it is entirely different from managerial finance which helps in studying the financial management of all business entities, rather than corporations alone, the main ideas in the study of corporate finance mainly relates to the financial issues and queries of all kinds of business entities.
- Capital Budgeting or in other terms also known as Investment Analysis is the core area of study which is mainly concerned with the context of standards about which value-adding plans should obtain investment funding, and either to finance that investment with debt capital or equity. Working capital is the study of management of the company's commercial funds that deals with the short-term operating surplus of current liabilities as well as the current asset. The focus and the primary concern here is on managing inventories, cash, and short-term borrowing and lending.
- The titles corporate financier and corporate finance are mainly related to investment banking. The usual function of an investment bank is to assess the company's economic needs and raise the appropriate opportunities of any requirement of capitals by the firms. Therefore, the words "corporate financier" and "corporate finance" may be correlated with transactions in which capital is gathered for the creation, develop, acquire, and grow businesses. Modern regulatory and legal branches in the U.S. will possibly modify the structure of the group of arrangements and financiers willing to regulate and implement financing for specific highly leveraged businesses.
- Financial management overlays with the economic function of the primary profession which is Accounting. Nevertheless, business accounting is all about reporting of factual financial information, while the financial administration is concerned with the allocation of funds to improve a business entity's value to the shareholders. Corporate finance is one of the most prominent subjects required to study about the financial domain and to gain knowledge in understanding its functions. It is deep rooted in our daily lives. All of our work in big or small corporations. These businesses raise funds and capital, then expand this capital for prolific purposes. The financial discretions that go behind the structuring and successfully developing wealth are what forms the foundation of corporate finance.
REASONS TO STUDY FINANCE OR FINANCIAL STUDIES
The knowledge of finance usually feels a lot narrower than it is. There is a lot of talk of originating bonds or pricing schemes which deny how important finance is to everyday life, regardless of whether or not you have any passion for working in the finance sectors. There are some following pointers given below which will help you to understand that why the study of finance is so significant. They are as follows:-
- PERSONAL FINANCES - Every individual will have to manage his or her personal finances in a daily or even in monthly basis. Like different business entities, individuals have been facing the day to day financing and investment decisions. By investing any funds or even capital, individuals must be able to do the same valuations and projections as companies do to plan the best investment for their needs. People cannot sell equity like big or small companies can, but they have a choice to make that whether to dip into their savings or take out loans. Many take on debt or mortgages in the form of student loans, or through their credit cards. Being able to compare options to leverage accurately is just as important for individuals as it is for several business entities and industrial sectors as well.
- ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT - Economics plays a significant role in the health of the overall economy and maintains a balance in the environment as well, which affects everyone, although they have studied finance. The field of economics and finance explains why there was a massive recession in the year of 2008. It is the reason why people care about how the stock market is making up and preparing themselves each day, and this explains why organizations, business entities, and governments make some of the decisions on their own. Finance plays a major role in many of the reports we see in the news days after days, which means that those who understand finance have a better grasp on how the events of the world affect them.
REQUIREMENT OF FINANCIAL STUDIES IN BUSINESS APPLICATIONS
The study of finance is crucial for those who have a passion for working in any financial or accounting sectors. Finance is profoundly used in jobs varying from venture capitalist to CFO, then to investment bankers. Still, finance is not sectioned from the other purposes in businesses. Every job from starting from engineering till marketing or studying finance has been able to maintain a budget and make a market in every way possible.
This applies in particular, like in higher up in the organizational hierarchy: directors, vice presidents, and managers, as they need to show their managerial skills as well as organizing skill set in helping any business or company to grow higher regarding its profits and stocks.
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CAPITAL MARKETS AND FIRMS
The corporate finance field is like a relationship between the capital markets and the firm. The objective of a financial manager and other professionals in the corporate finance department is double. First, they need to ensure that the company has sufficient finances and that they are using the correct sources of supplies that have the least costs according to that of the market price. Second, they have to assure that the company is placing the stocks in an increased way so that its uses can be both good as well as creating highest return for its owners and investors.
SEPARATION OF MANAGEMENT TO THAT WITH OWNERSHIP
The foundation of corporate finance is the separation or division of management to that of ownership. Now, the business firm or entity is not limited by capital which requires being provided by an individual partner only. The general society needs boulevards for investing their surplus savings. They are not comfortable with putting all their money in risk-free banks. These people wish to take a risk with some of their capital. They obey the dual need of providing corporations with access to a source of funding while at the same time they present the general people with a surplus of choices for financing and investment.
IMPORTANCE OF FINANCIAL STUDIES
Banks and other institutions, as well as other educational trusts, are overwhelming consumers with credit opportunities
and facilitating them to apply for credit cards, use them to pay other balances and surpluses. Without the proper information in balances and checks, it is easy to get into an economic problem. In preceding generations, cash was used for practical purposes and was required in every type of purchases. Now, money is unusually used. The way we buy has improved as well. Online shopping has become the top option for many younger shoppers, generating sufficient opportunities to use and credit cards, an all too easy way to acquire debt, quickly. Many of these customers have a petite understanding of finances, how credit works and what is the potential result on their financial well-being for years to come. In fact, the absence of economic knowledge has been indicated as one of the main reasons or causes behind savings and financing problems faced by many people who stay in the US.
Below are some reasons which will help us in understanding the requirement and importance in studying corporate finance and financial studies. They are as follows:-
- STARTUP CAPITAL - This type of money can come in the form of a business capital loan or from a bank, even from an investor, or venture entrepreneurs. In the case of a bank loan, the company will be required to make cyclical payments to pay down the money plus any interest fees. In the illustration as an investor, he or she will arrange to afford that startup capital in correspondence for a particular post in the company. Startup capital can be referred as the money required to start a new business, manufacturing and product development, marketing as well as any other expense.
- ECONOMIC CYCLE OR BUSINESS CYCLE -The economic cycle or business cycle is the upward and downward movement of the GDP or in short known as the Gross Domestic Product. The economic cycle is the variation in an economic movement that an economy encounters over a period. A business cycle is determined as times of extension or recession. During expansions, the economy increases in real times as evidenced by the increases in pointers like industrial production, sales, and employment. During the time of recessions, the economy starts to contract, as estimated by drops in the above pointers. This type of expansion is determined from the bottom of the previous economic cycle to the top of the regular reporting period, while the recession is measured from the upper part to the bottom. In the United States, the NBER or popularly known as The National Bureau of Economic Research helps in circumscribing the current dates for economic cycles.
- BUSINESS GROWTH - Business Growth is a scene where the business touches the prominent expansion and explores additional opportunities to create more profit. Business growth is the sole purpose of the industry growth trends, and the owners crave for equity value production. Growth in a business or to that of a company provides the significant generating power in positive cash flows or wages, which maximizes faster production in rates than the overall economy. A business growth tends to become very successful reinvestment opportunities for its engaged earnings. Therefore, it typically pays limited to no dividends to stockholders, opting rather putting all of its profits back into its expanding business into industry sectors.
- DEBT RATIO - A financial ratio or a debt ratio helps in measuring the amount of a business’s or purchaser's advantage. The debt ratio is determined as the proportion or ratio of the total of long-term and short-term – debt to that of total assets it is mainly represented as a percentage or decimal. It can be defined as the balance of a company’s assets that are funded by debt.
ASSIGNMENT TOPICS ON CORPORATE FINANCE
There are many such topics in Corporate Finance Assignments which help Financial students to get prepared before they appear for their examinations, seminars as well as prepare their assignments or projects on time. Following are the names and short descriptions about the topics presented below:-
- CREDIT CONTROL - Credit control is the system of study which is used by a business or a company to make sure that it provides credit facilities only to customers who can pay, and that the clients pay on time. This type of control is a part of the Commercial Control which are operated by businesses especially in production to assure that once sales are made they are received as cash or marketable resources. Credit Control is a vital system of scrutiny that limits the business from becoming closed due to the improper and misuse of credit to clients or even lending in a Commercial Institutions unnecessarily. Credit control has a plenty of segments which comprise of credit approval, dispatch approvals, credit limit approval, as well as collection processes.
- Large and small business entities prefer a credit method which will be run by the senior manager and will introduce the process of KYC or Know Your Customer, Approval of credit, and support for credit limits of about 30 Days net. Extension of Credit and producing collection action. This type of reports is mainly submitted to the Financial Directors for further scrutiny.
- RETIREMENT INCOME FUND - A group of finance products accessible to anyone as a conventional means of conserving for retirement purposes. An RIF is a mutual fund that is well expanded to a great and stocks or bonds. An RIF or commonly known as Retirement Investment Fund balances its duties to allow moderate gains using a conventional approach to endeavor in retaining the value while contributing income to investors.
- EMERGENCY AND RESERVE FUND - A reserve fund is a type of savings account or another variant of liquid asset set apart by an individual or company for meeting the future expenses of subsistence and any unexpected costs that may appear. If the fund is established to meet the costs of arranging rises, less-liquid assets can be exercised. Like for an instance condominiums or homes often set up reserve funds in which owners pay fixed monthly cost to maintain the condition of the home. An emergency fund is an account handled to set aside reserves required in the event of personal financial complications, such as the loss of a job, a disease or a major expense. The purpose of the fund is to improve commercial security by forming a safety net of funds that can be used to meet emergency payments as well as reduce the requirement to draw from high-interest debt securities, such as unsecured loans or from credit cards.
- JOINT OWNERSHIP - Joint ownership or in other term is known as joint tenancy means when a property by two or more similar or separate entities which is caused when four situations like, possession, time, interest, and title are satisfied. Unlike joint tenants have right of, the whole share of a former joint tenant transfers on to the surviving tenant. The ultimate survivor becomes the sole owner of the property. Business in joint ownership is not subject to rights of anyone and moves on free. Also called joint tenancy with right of the property in common.
- ASSET ALLOCATION - Asset allocation is an investment policy which aims at maintaining the balance between reward and risk management systems by distributing a portfolio's assets according to a risk tolerance, and investment horizon. The three main asset classes are equities, cash equivalents, and fixed-income. These have different levels of return and risk so that each will behave adversely over time.
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