Atmospheric Thermodynamics Assignment HelpAtmospheric thermodynamics
is the study of heat to work transformations in the earth's atmospheric system in relation to climate and weather. Atmospheric thermodynamics
studies phenomena such as formation of clouds, properties of moist air, boundary layer meteorology atmospheric convection, and vertical stabilities in the atmosphere. The diagram of Atmospheric thermodynamics are used as tools in the forecasting of storm development. It forms a basis for convection parameterizations in numerical weather and focuses on water and its transformations models and cloud micro physics
. It is used in many climate considerations, including convective-equilibrium climate models. It focuses on water and its transformations. The Atmospheric thermodynamics areas of study include the conservation, the ideal gas law, adiabatic processes, and the law of energy, specific heat capacities, and moist adiabatic processes. Advanced topics, homogeneous and in-homogeneous nucleation, are phase transitions of water, role of super saturation on formation of ice crystals and cloud droplets, effect of dissolved substances on cloud condensation. The considerations of moist air and cloud theories typically include various temperatures, such as wet-bulb and virtual temperatures, equivalent potential temperature. The major role of atmospheric thermodynamics is expressed in terms of adiabatic and diabatic forces acting on air parcels that is included in primitive equations of air motion either as sub grid parameterizations or grid resolved. These equations form a basis for climate predictions and numerical weather.
Applications:Hadley Circulation -
It can be considered as a heat engine
. The Hadley circulation is identified with rising of moist and warm air in the equatorial region with the descent of colder air in the subtropics. The Hadley system thermodynamic efficiency is considered as a heat engine and has been relatively constant over the 1979~2010 period, averaging 2.6%.
Tropical cyclone Carnotcycle -
The thermodynamic structure of the hurricane can be modelled as a heat engine. It runs between a sea temperature of about 300K and tropopause which has temperature of about 200K. During the condensation, the release of latent heat energy provides mechanical energy for the hurricane. An increasing temperature of the atmosphere or a decreasing temperature in the upper troposphere close to the surface,will increase the maximum winds observed in hurricanes. It defines a Carnot heat engine cycle when applied to hurricane dynamics and predicts maximum hurricane intensity.